Biochem 501: Lecture 27: Ketones, Sterols, Isoprenoids

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Biochem 501: Lecture 27: Ketones, Sterols, Isoprenoids
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2013-11-11 19:26:53
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Biochem 501
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  1. Use of Ketone bodies
    • Produced in liver
    • Used by heart muscle/kidney
    • Starvation: brain
    • Excess Ac-CoA - low OAA in TCA
    • Diabetics:  acetone breath
  2. Liver can do what with Acetyl-CoA
    When low insulin/high beta oxydation, A-CoA exceeds Oxaloacetate, this means there are leftover A-CoA
  3. Ketone bodies
    • Acetoacetate
    • beta-hydroxybutyrate     
    • -circulating fuels produced by liver,                  non-glucose foods during fasting Acetone
  4. Physiological Conditions that Promote Ketogenesis
    • Fasting/starvation
    • Diabetes Ketogenic diet
    • -High fat
    • -Newborn
    • All occur during low insulin
  5. Ketogenesis
    • Occurs in liver
    • Occurs when fat breakdown is predominate
    • Not enough oxaloacetate to ferry all a-CoA into TCA
    • Excess TCA becomes acetoacetate, 3-hydoxybutyrate, and acetone
  6. Transition from Acetyl-CoA to Acetoacetate, Acetone and beta-Hydroxybutyrate
  7. Acetoacetate/beta-hydroxybutyrate export
    Exported as source of energy for heart, skeletal muscle, kidney and brain
  8. Glucose export from liver
    Exported as fuel for brain/other tissues.
  9. Regulation of FA metabolism
  10. Cholesterogenesis
    • Formed from A-CoA
    • Major synthesis sites: liver, intestine, adrenal cortex and the gonads. 
    • Takes place in cytoplasm (unlike cytoplasm)
  11. Source of all carbons in cholesterol:
    Acetate
  12. Origin of Cytoplasmic Acetyl-CoA Precursor
  13. Stage One of Cholesterol Synthesis
  14. Second Stage of Cholesterol Synthesis
  15. Stage 3 of Cholesterol Synthesis
  16. Stage 4 of Cholesterol Synthesis
  17. Stage One Step One: Acetyl-CoA to Acetoacetyl-CoA
  18. Stage One Step Two: Acetoacetyl-CoA to HMG-CoA
  19. Stage 1 Step 3: HMG-CoA to Mevalonate
  20. Stage 2 Step One: Mevalonate to Activated Isoprenes
  21. Stage 2 Step 2: Mevalonate to 5-Pyrophosphomevalonate
  22. Stage 2 Step 3: 5-Pyrophosphomevalonate to 3-Phospho-5-pyrophosphomevalonate
  23. Stage 2 Step 4: 3-phospho-5-pyrophosphomevalonate to
    delta3-Isopentenyl pyrophosphate/Dimethylallyl pyrophosphate
  24. Stage 3 Step 1: Isoprenes (5-C) to Farnesyl (15-C)
  25. Stage 3 Step 2: Two Farnesyl-PP (15-C) Condense Head-to-head to Squalene (30-C)
  26. Stage 4 Step 1: Squalene Cyclization Forms Steroid Nucleus
  27. Stage 4 Step 2: Squalene Cyclization Forms Steroid Nucleus
  28. Stage 4 Step 3: Lanosterol to Cholesterol
  29. Synthesis of Cholesterol Esters
  30. Regulation of HMG-CoA Reductase Synthesis by Cholesterol
  31. Regulation of Cholesterol Synthesis
  32. Cholesterol as Steroid Precursor
  33. Protein Prenylation
  34. Lipid Linked Membrane Proteins

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