Psych 250 Exam 3

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Psych 250 Exam 3
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2013-11-11 22:32:11
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  1. Puberty
    • The hormonal and physical changes by which children become sexually mature human beings and reach their adult height
    • Comes at an earlier age now because of better nutrition
    • Lasts approx. 5 years
  2. Menarche
    A girl's first menstruation
  3. Spermarche
    A boy's first ejaculation of live sperm
  4. HPG Axis
    The main hormonal system programming puberty; it involves a triggering hypothalamic hormone that causes that pituitary to secrete its hormones, which in turn cause the ovaries and testes to develop and secrete the hormones that produce the major body changes
  5. Testosterone
    The hormone responsible for the maturation of the organs of reproduction and other signs of puberty in men, and for hair and skin changes during puberty and for sexual desire in both sexes
  6. Puberty Sequence in Girls
    • First sign: growth spurt during late childhood (lasts around 2 years)
    • Six months later, breasts develop and pubic hair (breasts take ~4 years to fully develop)
    • Menarche occurs in the middle to final stages of breast and pubic hair development
  7. Puberty Sequence in Boys
    • Penis, testes, and pubic hair develops first, before any sort of visible growth occurs
    • Voice changes, growth of body hair, all take place after the growth of the testes and penis are well underway
    • Growth spurt starts later than girls, but is far larger than in girls due to muscle mass and cardiovascular changes - and lasts longer
  8. Eating Disorder
    A pathological obsession with getting and staying thin. The two best known eating disorders are anorexia and bulimia
  9. Bulimia
    An eating disorder characterized by at least biweekly cycles of binging and purging (by inducing vomiting or taking laxatives) in an obsessive attempt to lose weight
  10. Anorexia
    A potentially life-threatening eating disorder characterized by pathological dieting (resulting in severe weight loss and, in females, loss of menstruation) and by a distorted body image
  11. Teen Pregnancy
    • Over a decade spanning the late 1990's to the early 2000's, teen pregnancy rates dipped from more than 5 to 4 per thousand girls
    • The US still ranks near the pinnacle of the developed world
  12. Sex Education
    • Many programs in the US focus on abstinence instead of safe sex - bad results, doesn't work
    • Teaching about contraception is better
    • Also important to teach about relationships
  13. Formal Operations
    • Piaget's final stage of cognitive growth (age 12)
    • Teens can think logically about concepts and hypothetical possibilities,  can think abstractly about ideas
    • Can reason like “real scientists”  
    • Reaching this stage allows the teen to “act” like an adult.
  14. Kohlberg's Moral Stages
    Preconventional, conventional, and postconventional
  15. Preconventional Level of Morality
    In Lawrence Kohlberg's theory, the lowest level of moral reasoning, in which people approach ethical issues by considering the personal punishments or rewards of taking a particular action
  16. Conventional Level of Morality
    In Lawrence Kohlberg's theory, the intermediate level of moral reasoning, in which people respond to ethical issues by considering the need to uphold social norms
  17. Postconventional Level of Morality
    In Lawrence Kohlberg's theory, the highest level of moral reasoning, in which people respond to ethical issues by applying their own moral guidelines apart from society's rules - rarely attained - most people are stuck in conventional
  18. Personal Fable
    David Elkind's term for the tendency of young teenagers to believe that their lives are special and heroic; a component of adolescent egocentrism
  19. Imaginary Audience
    David Elkind's term for the tendency of young teenagers to feel that everyone is watching their every action; a component of adolescent egocentrism
  20. Invincibility
    Teens tend to feel invincible (tied in to the personal fable - they're heroes) and are therefore more likely to engage in risky behavior
  21. Emotional Stability
    • Teens are emotionally unstable and incredibly susceptible to overreacting or doing stupid shit
    • They are more emotionally intense than adults, but these emotions are in no way irrational - they are perfectly rational for the teen in the situation
    • And teens are also most definitely NOT emotionally disturbed
  22. Risk Taking
    • Teens are already known to be more prone to take risks for numerous reasons: an undeveloped frontal lobe, invincibility, etc.
    • Another affect to this is peer pressure - even adults are prone to succumb to activities they normally wouldn't when in a group - it's even easier for teens
  23. The US Justice System's Treatment of Delinquency
    Teens under 18 are generally tried as children unless they have done something horrible enough to warrant being tried as an adult
  24. Parent-Teen Relationships
    Parents and teens argue over minor things most frequently, not large issues like drugs or sex, but daily mundane matters: Responsibilities and privileges,  Curfews, Athletics, Financial independence
  25. Cliques
    • Intimate groups of approximately 6 members
    • Serve emotional and security needs
  26. Crowds
    • Less intimate larger groups than cliques, includes both boys and girls
    • Provide opportunities to meet people, develop romantic relationships, explore identity
  27. Homophily
    • The degree to which friends are similar to each other in terms of behaviors, tastes, views, and goals
    • Established by selection and socialization
  28. Gangs
    • A close-knit, delinquent peer group
    • Provide members with status, protection and income through criminal activities - have the potential to turn time-limited adolescent turmoil into life-course criminal careers
    • More prevalent in communities where: life is dangerous, monotonous, and there are few options for a successful adult life
  29. Internalizing Problems
    • Depression, anxiety
    • More common among girls
  30. Externalizing Problems
    • Aggression and delinquency
    • More common among boys
  31. Subcortex
    Controls the experience of emotion
  32. Frontal Lobe
    • Controls the regulation of emotion
    • Doesn't develop fully until age 22
  33. Adolescent Egocentrism
    • Developed by Elkinds using Piaget's formal operations to try to explain teenage emotional states
    • Adolescents become aware of the flaws of others, so they become obsessed with what others think of their own flaws
  34. Heinz Dilemma
    Kohlberg emphasized that it is the way an individual reasons about the dilemma that determines moral maturity.
  35. Super-Peer Theory
    Causes teens to overestimate the number of their peers who are sexually active
  36. Third Person Effect
    • The idea that people tend to perceive that mass communicated messages have a differential influence on themselves and others, based on personal biases
    • "Media doesn’t affect me, but it affects everyone else…”
  37. Cultivation Effect Theory
    heavy media exposure alters perception of social reality
  38. Social Cognitive Theory
    Theory that states that portions of an individual's knowledge acquisition can be directly related to observing others within the context of social interactions, experiences, and outside media influences.
  39. Secondary Sexual Characteristic
    • features that appear during puberty, especially those that distinguish the two sexes of a species, but that are not directly part of the reproductive system
    • Breasts on women, Adams apple, facial hair on men
  40. Binge Drinking
    • Results from stressful life events in adolescents
    • More common in males
    • Belief that drinking is part of the college social scene
    • Men: 5 or more drinks in a row
    • Women: 4 or more drinks in a row
  41. Postformal Thought
    • Advanced thought that integrates emotion with logic and the situational constraints and circumstances and the imprecise nature of one's knowledge
    • Ability to reason through contradictions, relativism, achieve synthesis, integrate subjective feelings with objective thoughts
  42. The Major Personality Achievement of Adolescence
    Identity
  43. Intimacy vs. Isolation
    • 20-40 years
    • Young adults need to form intimate, loving relationships with other people (Intimacy - not just physical, self disclosure)
    • Success leads to strong relationships
    • Failure results in loneliness and isolation
  44. Sexual socialization
    • Described as the process by which knowledge, attitudes, and values about sexuality are acquired
    • Messages are coming through 4 major sources: Parents, peers, media, and schools
  45. Arnett On What Makes Someone An Adult
    • Accepting full responsibility for one’s self
    • Making independent decisions
    • Becoming financially independent
    • Parenthood?
    • self sufficiency is the key
  46. Arnett's Emerging Adulthood
    A distinct developmental period between adolescence and adulthood characterized by relative independence from social roles and from normative expectations
  47. US Trends in College Enrollment and Graduation
    • 2 out of 3 high school grads enroll in college
    • 16% higher than 1970
    • Nearly 25% drop out in the first two years
    • 1 in 4 receive a college degree by mid twenties
  48. Dialectical Thought
    The ability to consider a thesis and its antithesis simultaneously and thus arrive at a synthesis
  49. Intimacy Stage (vs. Isolation)
    • One of Erikson's stages
    • Intimacy stage = the search for a soul mate or enduring love
  50. Homogamy
    The principle that we select a mate who is similar to us
  51. Identity Statuses (Stages)
    • James Marcia developed four different identity statuses that expanded on Erikson's theory
    • Diffusion
    • Foreclosure
    • Moratorium
    • Achievement
  52. Diffusion
    • Young people drifting aimlessly toward adulthood without goals
    • Compares to Erikson's role confusion "I don't know what I want to do, nothing appeals to me"
  53. Foreclosure
    • Young people who adopt an identity without any self-exploration or thought
    • "My parents want me to continue the family business, so that's what I'll do"
  54. Moratorium
    • Young people who engage in exciting, healthy searches for adulthood
    • Often an internal process that can be anxiety-provoking due to the exploration of different philosophies and ideas
    • "Let me try this, that, and the other. How can I choose from so many careers in which I have an interest?"
  55. Achievement
    • The end result where identity formation is complete
    • "I know what I wan to do with my life, I have found my calling"
  56. Ethnic Identity
    Individual's sense of self as a member of a particular ethnic group
  57. Cohabitation
    • Does not make for a more secure marriage later - not an easy fix
    • People who cohabitate are less conventional, less religious, lower social economic status - account for higher divorce rate
  58. Social Clock
    Shared age norms that act as guideposts to what behaviors are appropriate at particular ages; usually set by society
  59. On Time
    Matching the normal social clock timetable
  60. Off Time
    Too early or too late from the normal social clock timetable
  61. Emerging Adulthood
    The phase of life that begins after high school, tapers off toward the late twenties, and is devoted to constructing an adult life
  62. Three Main Areas of Identity Exploration (Arnett)
    Love, work, and worldviews

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