Biology 172 Exam 2 Animal Nutrition

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Biology 172 Exam 2 Animal Nutrition
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2013-11-11 22:57:28
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Biology 172 Exam Animal Nutrition
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Biology 172 Exam 2 Animal Nutrition
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  1. 1. feeding on particulate organic matter suspended in the water
    2. examples
    1) sea fans
    2) crinoids or sea lilies
    Suspension Feeders
  2. a. = a type of suspension feeding whereby the animal creates its own feeding current 
    b. examples
    1) fan worms 2) sponges 3) bivalved mollusks 4) barnacles 5) brachiopods 6) tunicates 7) herrings 8) baleen whales
    filter feeding
  3. 1. live on or in their food source
    2. examples
    a. leaf miner feeding on leaf mesophyll
    b. fly maggots in rotting meat
    3. deposit feeding (a type of substrate feeding)
    a. feeding on deposited particulate matter
    b. examples 1) spaghetti worms 2) earthworms 3) most sea cucumbers
    Substrate Feeders
  4. 1. characteristic of parasites
    2. internal parasites absorb surrounding fluids
    3. external parasites - pierce skin and suck blood or other tissue fluids
    a. mosquitoes
    b. fleas
    c. leeches
    d. mites
    4. nonparasitic 
    a. butterflies
    b. spiders
    Fluid Feeders
  5. 1. feed on relatively large pieces of food
    2. see a variety of adaptations for obtaining and ingesting food/prey
    3. examples
    a. snakes 
    b. lions
    c. humans
    d. large mammalian grassland grazers
    Feeding on Food Masses (Macrophagy; Bulk Feeders)
  6. gastric juice secreted by parietal cells
    hydrochloric acid
  7. gastric juice secreted by chief cells
    pepsinogen
  8. cleaves proteins into smaller units
    pepsin
  9. secretion in duodenum
    a) neutralizes acidity of acid chyme
    b) enzymes
    pancreatic juice
  10. a) cleaves specific types of peptide bonds to generate smaller polypeptide fragments from larger proteins
    b) secreted from the pancreas as __________ which is converted to __________ by trypsin
    • chymotrypsin
    • chymotrypsinogen, chymotrypsin
  11. a) cleaves specific types of peptide bonds to generate smaller polypeptide fragments from larger proteins
    b) also activates chymotrypsin and carboxypeptidase
    trypsin
  12. trypsin is secreted from the pancreas as trypsinogen which is converted to trypsin by membrane-bound _________
    enteropeptidase
  13. cleaves individual amino acids from the carboxyl end of a protein in duodenum
    carboxypeptidase
  14. carboxypeptidase is secreted from the pancreas as procarboxypeptidase which is converted to carboxypeptidase by ______
    trypsin
  15. pancreatic amylase continues the breakdown of ____________
    polysaccharides
  16. lipases hydrolyse ________ to glycerols and fatty acids
    triglycerides
  17. nuclease cleaves ___________ into individual __________
    nucleic acids, nucleotides
  18. a) fluid produced in the liver and stored in the gall bladder
    b) enters the duodenum through a common duct with the pancreas
    bile
  19. a) = the breakdown products of hemoglobin from the blood
    b) responsible for the color and odor of fecal material
    bile pigments
  20. a) phospholipids
    b) emulsify fats
    bile salts
  21. enzymes bound to the brush border of the small intestine
    intestinal membrane enzymes
  22. enteropeptidase activates the ________ (certain inactive forms of pancreatic enzymes) in the lumen of the small intestine
    zymogens
  23. disaccharidases cleave disaccharides into _________
    monosaccharides
  24. aminopeptidase cleaves individual amino acids from ___________
    amino end of a protein
  25. dipeptidases cleave _______ into individual amino acids
    dipeptides
  26. nucleotidases and nucleosidases break apart nucleotides into...
    nitrogenous bases, ribose sugars, and phosphates

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