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The Warren Court was a period of time where President Eisenhower appointed Governor Earl Warren of California as the new Supreme Court Chief Justice. He was deeply influenced by the two most forceful justices, Hugo Black and William O Douglas. During his years of reign made far reaching decisions on segregation, rights of criminals, and legislative apportionments within states. Biggest decision during this time was the Brown vs. Board of Education.
Brown vs Board of Education (of Topeka Kansas)
An unanimous court ordered that under the Constitution (Amendment 14), public schools could not be seperated by race. No American deprived of the right to go to school with all other Americans of their age and grade. All public schools in America had to be integrated.
Schools could not be seperated by race. All Americans right to go to school with all other Americans of their age and grade. Brought everyone together into one unit. Established to be law in the ruling of Brown vs Board of Education of Topeka Kansas.
Little Rock, Arkansas
First serious incident of South massive retaliation against integration. Little Rock, Arkansas school board moved to integrate its high schools. Gov Orval Faubus declares there was a danger of violence in Little Rock and sent the national guard. National guard prevented black children from attending school. Later the national guard was removed by a federal judge and just when the blacks could go back to school a white mob forced them to leave.
Governor of Little Rock, Arkansas, that declared a danger of violence and summoned the National Guard to prevent blacks from attending school.
A tired black seamstress returning from work who boarded a crowded bus in Montgomery, Alabama. She sat in the front row section of black passengers and when told to give up her seat to a white man and move further back she refused. She was arrested for violating the law, but wanted to take action from Americans being degraded. Help to start Civil Rights movement and Montgomery Bus Boycott.
Martin Luther King
Son of a minister born in Atlanta. Attended Morehouse College and recieved a doctors degree in theology from Boston University. Combined commen sense of Booker T Washington and impatient visions of Du Bois. Later became a baptist minister in Montgomery, Alabama where the whole Rosa Parks incident took place. Felt it was time for action to stop Americans from being degraded (Civil Rights Movement and Montgomery Bus Boycott). King used the way of massive and nonviolent opposition to unjust laws to carry out his message.
Many blacks in the South using Kings way of peaceful protest like this. Was a form of protest in which the participants occupy a building or a site in the hope of forcing their opponents to give in to their demands
When the Hungarians tried to win their freedom from the Communist regime in 1956, they were crushed down by Soviet tanks.
First artificial Earth satellite, it was launched by Moscow in 1957 and sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. It led to the creation of NASA and the space race.
In response to Sputnik, the U.S. launched its own first satellite, Explorer 1, in January 1958.
National Defense Education Act
Instituted by President Eisenhower to primarily stimulate the advancement of education in science, mathematics, and modern foreign languages as a response to the Soviet launch of Sputnik.
Eisenhower saw the creation of this administration in 1958 to get the United States back in the running with the Soviets with regards to space travel.
Stated that the United States would use armed forces upon request in response to imminent or actual aggression to the United States. Furthermore, countries that took stances opposed to Communism would be given aid in various forms.
1960; an American U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. The U.S. denied the true purpose of the plane at first, but was forced to when the Soviets produced the living pilot and the largely intact plane to validate their claim of being spied on aerially. The incident worsened East-West relations during the Cold War and was a great embarrassment for the United States.
He was a pro-American dictator of Cuba before Castro. His overthrow led to Castro and communists taking over Cuba, who was now friendly to the Soviets.
Man who piloted the failed mission and plane in the U2 spy mission over Russia. Many theories going off of the incidents in which and how the failure happened.
Cuban revolutionary who overthrew Batista dictatorship in 1958 established communism and assumed control of the island country. His connections with the Soviet Union led to a cessation of diplomatic relations with the United States in such internationl affairs as the Bay of Pigs invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis. Oversaw his country through the end of the Cold War and through nearly a half-century of trade embargo with the US
Post ww2 when many countries around the globe, notably those of Europe, Asia, North America, and Australasia experienced a baby boom. By the end of the decade, about 32 million babies had been born, compared with 24 million in the lean 1930s. In 1954, annual births first topped four million and did not drop below that figure until 1965, when four out of ten Americans were under the age of twenty
Mass transit brought people who lived in the city to the suburbs and were still able to easily commute to work back in the city. This however benefited the urban population unevenly. Working class families were unable to afford streetcars, but, the growing middle class families could. This resulted in many living on the outskirts in quiet neighborhoods and travel inward to the big city for work and entertainment.
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