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What is the single deadliest natural disaster in history?
Galveston Hurricane of 1900
What happened in the Hurricane of 1900?
- 130-140 mph winds
- 15.7 ft storm surge
- 6,000-8,000 killed
- more than 3600 buildings occurred
What was the recovery plan for the Hurricane of 1900?
- construct the seawall
- elevate buildings on stilts
- raise the entire city
How did Galveston fare during Hurricane Ike?
better than hurricane of 1900 because of the seawall and elevation of the city
Why was hurricane Katrina so devastating?
the levee failed and New Orleans is below sea level
What is the difference between cyclones, hurricanes and typhoons?
occur in different parts of the world
Where do cyclones occur?
Where do typhoons occur?
Pacific Ocean, north of the equator
Where do hurricanes occur?
- Atlantic Ocean
- eastern Pacific Ocean
What is a tropical cyclone?
- form over warmer tropical waters
- have warm, central cores
- high winds, heavy rains, surges and tornadoes
- derive energy from warm ocean water & latent heat
What is an extratropical cyclone?
- form in temperate regions (30-70 degrees)
- cool, central cores
- don't produce severe weather
- derive energy from temperature contrasts
What is the Safir-simpson scale?
rates hurricanes on a scale of 1 to 5 based on intensity
How are hurricanes named?
- rotate every 6 years to a different set of names (6 groups of 21 names)
- super damaging storm names are retired
- male/female names rotated every year
What does it take for a hurricane to be named?
wind speed reaches 39 mph
What happens in the tropical disturbance stage?
massive thunderstorms that maintain identity for a period of 24 hours or more
What happens in the tropical depression stage?
wind speeds increase and begin to spin, creating a low pressure center
What happens in the tropical storm stage?
winds reach 39 mph and the storm is named, not yet a hurricane but has intense rainfall
What happens in the hurricane stage?
winds exceed 74 mph
What is hurricane wind velocity?
the velocity of winds that spiral counterclockwise
What is storm center velocity?
the velocity at which the low pressure center of the eye moves across the surface (pushed by regional winds)
What are the effects of cyclones?
- storm surge
- high winds
- heavy rains
What is storm surge?
- local rise in sea level resulting from storm winds
- greater than 10 ft
- greatest in right quadrant
What are considered high winds?
- described by Safir-simpson scale
- decrease as they hit land
What are considered heavy rains?
- average hurricanes produce a trillion gallons of water
- rainfall causes inland flooding
What is flooding affected by?
- storm speed
- land elevation
- interaction w/ other weather systems
- amount of water in soil
What doe a hurricane forecast include?
- if it will make landfall
- when and where
- wind strength
- rainfall amount
- storm surge
What is a hurricane watch?
likely hurricane in 36 hours
What is a hurricane warning?
hurricane is likely in 24 hours of less
What is used to forecast hurricanes?
- doppler radar
- weather buoys
- computer models
- winds of 75 mph, equivalent of Category 1 Hurricane
- one of most powerful typhoons to ever hit land