Psyc 362 Exam2

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  1. What is Thorndikes Law of Effect?
    We will do things more often that brings us pleasure
  2. What is positive reinforcement?
    When it leads to desired effects, we do it more often
  3. What is negative reinforcement?
    When it ends/avoids something undesired, we do it more
  4. What does S, R, O stand for?
    Stimulus, Response, Outcome
  5. R is a Behvaioral Unit: not a single behavior but a class of behaviors producing an effect. In cognitive psychology this would be....
    Goal or intention
  6. What is discriminative stimulus
    A stimulus that changes. (mom sober=picking me up, mom drunk=not picking me up)
  7. Do contingencies in operant conditioning change?
  8. Is operant conditioning a 3 part association? How?
    Yes! 1) context/discriminative stimulus (S) 2) Behavioral Response (R) 3) Outcome (O)
  9. Discriminative stimuli
    tell us which contingencies are in effect. If S, R-> O; If no S, R does nothing.
  10. How is discriminative stimuli studied in the lab?
    Operant conditioning in the Skinner Box. The animal is 'free' in the chamber, no experimenter intervention. Also, many possible contingencies can be introduced.
  11. Learning in a positive reinforcement paradigm.
    Initially tries many things, eventually accidentally presses the lever producing a positive effect
  12. Operant Conditioning in the skinner box
    Now starts hanging around the lever, accidentally presses it again. Eventually Acquisition happens
  13. Shaping?
    Initially contingency introduced for simple behavior. As response improves, contingency changes to something more complex, until it builds a response that an animal wouldn't naturally produce.
  14. Chaining?
    Builds complex response sequences by linking together S->R->O conditions.
  15. Acquisition?
    Animal discovers contingency, response increases.
  16. Punishment
    an outcome that decreases frequency of behavior
  17. What are the problems of punishment?
    Circumvention (you can discriminate the stimuli to help avoid punishment like not speeding around cops), Produce fear/anxiety/rage/aggression, can become less effective with time, punishments become weak. Shorting delay between behavior and punishment the better learned.
  18. Compare and contrast operant and classical conditioning.
    • Operant conditioning:Animal operates environment, stimulus evokes response to produce outcome, animal connects context, behvaior, and outcome.
    • Classical conditioning: enviornment operates on animal, Stimulus evokes response, animal learns CS and US.
  19. Who is BF Skinner?
    Founder of Operant Conditioning
  20. Who said "I did not direct my life. I didn't design it. I never made decisions. Things always came up and made them for me. That's what life is"?
  21. What did skinner say about the form of the S, then R-> O Contingency?
    that it guided future behaviors (operant conditioning). Positive outcomes increase, negative outcomes decrease
  22. Post-reinforcement pause?
    Get rewarded at a fixed rate
  23. VR?
    Variable Ration- Steady, strong responding
  24. VI?
    Variable Interval- Steady, weak responding
  25. Why are VR and VI so different?
    • VI-After X amount of seconds, 1R produces 1O, but X changes after each O. Behavior before interval expires has no consequence.
    • VR- Every X amount of R's produces 1O, but X changes with each reinforcer. Identified by average number of R's per O.
  26. FR?
    Fixed Ratio- Steady, moderate responding punctuated by post-reinforcement breaks
  27. FI?
    Fixed interval- Low responding building to high responding just before reinforcement period expires. Pattern of responding is greatly influenced by schedule of reinforcement.
  28. Operant conditioning requires...
    integrated activity in many brain areas
  29. Dorsal Stratum (caudate nucleus and putamen)
    Plays important role is S-R learning
  30. Orbitofrontal cortex
    plays role in linking responses with outcomes (R-O part)
  31. Basal ganglia
    Set of subcoritcal structures that link sensory and motor cortices
  32. How do endogenous opiods work with opiates to create a hedonic value
    Opiates may provide information about "liking" that helps stimulate the ventral tegmental area
  33. Ventral Tegmental Area
    VTA-wanting system
  34. Role of Dopamine
    All addictive drugs cause the release of dopamine. (happy feeling)
  35. Define pathological addiction and explain how it occurs
    Pathological addiction-a strong habit maintained by harmful consequences. How it occurs-involves craving a high, and avoiding withdrawal. Seeking pleasure involves positive reinforcement. Avoiding pain involves negative reinforcement.
  36. What does Naltrexone do?
    Indirectly inhibits dopamine production. May help treat heroin addicts and compulsive gamblers.
  37. How does CBT work?
    Extinction, distancing, reinforcement of alternative behaviors, delayed reinforcement, need to give alternative healthy behavior. Based on intrumental conditioning principles
  38. Define generalization
    Transferring past experiences to new situations
  39. Define dicrimination
    Perception of differences between stimuli
  40. How can generalization be helpful and/or harmful?
    Can be helpful to avoid bad things, but harmful because it can make you avoid good things because they are similar to something you dislike.
  41. What is specificity?
    Applying the past narrowly, discriminating.
  42. Generality?
    Applying the past broadly, generalizing
  43. What kinds of things can animals learn in discrimination training?
    For example, pigeons learned to peck yellow light for food
  44. Everyday examples of generalization and discrimination among humans?
    Don't eat broccoli because its similar to cauliflower.
  45. What is stereotypes?
    Denying exceptions for individuals from a group for which we may hold oversimplified beliefs. Attempts to justify unfair treatment
  46. Can stimuli predict similar consequences?
  47. Generalization gradient
    Graph shows how physical changes in stimuli correspond to behavioral response changes
  48. Role of hippocampus in generalization and discrimination
    Plays major role in guiding discrimination and generalization. Damage to hippocampus can therefore disrupt these functions: Alzehimers, Traumatic brain injury, stroke, schizophrenia
  49. Schizophrenia?
    Symptoms of hippocampal abnormal shape, acquired-equivalence/relational associations. Symptoms include delusions, flattened affect, social impairment, Neural mechanisms are no well understood. Has been linked to disruption of many different brain functions. M
  50. Differences between declarative and nondeclarative memories
    • Declarative memories can be broken down into episodic and semantic memories. 
    • Nondeclarative is learning to do something

    both are longterm memories
  51. Difference between explicit and implicit memories.
    • Implicit-all the memories we have that we don't have anything to do with storing
    • Explicit-memories we are a part of, done a little work to store
  52. Differences between episodic and semantic
    • Episodic-specific autobiographical events (first kiss
    • Semantic-facts, aqcuired knowledge (State capitals)
  53. Three Memory Processes
    • 1)Encoding (Initial storage in memory
    • 2)Storage/consolidation (maintaining stored memory)
    • 3)Retrieval (re-activation memory for further processing)
  54. Effects of repetition/mere exposure, prior knowledge
    Simple repetition and exposure is not always an effective way of encoding new memories. Prior knowledge dramatically enhances encoding.
  55. Depths of processing
    • Pronounce- Low level processing
    • Images- High level of processing
    • Images words- remembered better later. 
    • deeply processing information depends on the number of areas in brain involved.
  56. Retrieval: Transfer-appropraite processing
    SCUBA study. Retrieval works best when conditions are similar to encoding conditions.
  57. Inference
    Similar overlapping information can interfere with memory, producing storage and retrieval errors
  58. Proactive interference
    Old information interferes with new information
  59. Retroactive
    New information interferes with old information
  60. False memory
    Memories can be modified and manipulated after encoding. Remembering a word on the list that is similar, but not really was there
  61. False confidence
    Very confident of word that was actually omitted (not there)
  62. False detail
    Remember specific details about the false memory
  63. Wade et al's study
    He photoshopped kids in photos of places were they have never been which created a false memory
  64. What is skill memory (AKA procedural memory)
    an ability to perform a task that has been honed through learning. Like playing an instrument
  65. Skill memories are similar/different to declarative memories how?
    • similar in that it improves with practice
    • differs in that its hard to verbalize, require repetition, can be retrieved w/o conscious awareness
  66. What is the relationship between expertise and talent
    Those that start off with talent are able to master (become an expert) more easily than others
  67. What makes someone an expert?
    Someone that masters a skill better than most people
  68. Importance of effort and talent
    Effort is required in all cases, even talented people must practice to become true experts, just may take less than some people
  69. Nature vs nurture and talent
    Being born with a talent vs. working hard to master it.
  70. How much effort is required to master something
    Minimum of 10,000 hours of practice
  71. Importance of perceptual learning
    experts see the world differently than a beginner. EX: Basketball players can better predict of a shot will hit before its released.
  72. Importance of feedback
    Need it to get better. Gain knowledge of results during training
  73. Thorndikes (1972) study
    asked participant to draw lines 3 in. long. Those who received feedback were the only ones who improved.
  74. importance of frequency
    Frequent feedback is helpful initially but doesn't lead to high long-term performance. Infrequent feedback has a slow start, but leads to better long term performance.
  75. Differences/effectiveness of Massed vs Spaced practice
    Massed is cramming practice close together, spaced is spacing it out over time. Spaced practice is more effective
  76. Skill decay
    Follows a basic forgetting law: Rapid decay initially, then slower decay as time progresses.
  77. Inference and decay
    skills can also deteriorate due to interference of new habits
  78. Transfer-appropriate processing
    Similarity between learning and retrieval of the skill
  79. Basal Ganglia
    Sits at base of forebrain. Collect input from the cortex. It then outputs to the Thalamus, then to the motor cortex and brainstem.
  80. What is regulated by basal ganglia
    Velocity, direction, and amplitude of movement
  81. what do imaging and structural imaging studies show?
    • Imaging studies: Expert racquet ball players have expanded somatosensory representation of their racquet hand. 
    • Structural imaging studies: Juggling increased grey matter volume specific to task-related brain areas
  82. What is Huntingtons disease?
    It inherited and causes damage to brain neurons, especially the BG and the cerebral cortex
  83. Symptoms of Huntingtons disease
    Psychological problems, slow loss of motor abilities, facial twitching and progressive shaking
  84. Relationship of skill learning with huntingtons disease
    Can slowly learn new skills but difficulty with tasks, and can learn some cognitive tasks such as Tower of Honoi puzzle.
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Psyc 362 Exam2
psych 362 Exam 2
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