Inherited or aquired weakness of the abdominal wall (abdominal muscles) and increased intraabdominal pressure result in the protrusion of the bowels or the omentum pushing forward the parietal peritoneum
Describe the normal male and female pubic hair:
The male pubic hair extends to the umbilicus showing an inverted V form.
The female pubic hair ends as a sharp, horizontal or slightly convex line above the mons pubis.
List the different ways of the abdominal palpation:
Superficial, medium deep and deep, penetrating, bimanual and balloting.
The characteristics of the free intraabdominal fluid are the followings:
Lying on the back, it has a concave border and follows changes in the position of the body. The fluid fluctuates.
The characteristic percussion sound of the abdomen is:
Tympanic, characteristic for air-containing cavities.
Describe the borders of the absolute liver dullness:
Right medioclavicular line, from the lower edge of the 6th rib till the costal margin.
Digested blood in the stool (tarry black stool).
Undigested, fresh blood in the stool.
The acholic stool looks like:
Grayish-white, fatty-shining stool indicating obstruction of the bile ducts.
Which is the ideal position of the patient for examination of the spleen?
The patient lies on his right side, the left arm above his head.
What is subicterus?
Slight jaundice, when yellow coloration of the sclera is detectable. The concentration of the serum bilirubin is about 35 umol/l.
Where is the McBurney’s point?
In the right iliacal (inguinal) region, at the border of the lateral and medial thirds of the line between the umbilicus and the spina iliaca anterior superior.
Where is the place of the abdominal puncture (paracentesis)?
In the left iliacal (inguinal) region, at the border of the lateral and medial thirds of the line between the umbilicus and the spina iliaca anterior superior.
Describe edema and the place of its occurence:
Increase of the interstitial fluid. Edema may be local and generalized.Cardiac edema occurs in the lower body parts (legs, sacral region) of the body due to the gravitation. Renal edema may develop anywhere (mainly in loose connective tissue, i.e. around the eyes and in the scrotum). Hypoproteinemic edema is generalized. Deep vein thrombosis and chronic venous insufficiency result in edema present on the corresponding extremity.
How to carry out and evaluate Babinski’s sign?
Scratching along the lateral surface of the sole from the heel forward. In pathological case, dorsalflexion of the hallux and fanning of the other toes are detectable, indicating upper motor neuron disease.
What characteristics of the pupils should be examined?
Width, round shape, sharp edge, central location, equality, narrowing to light and convergence, consensual reactions.
The hypnoid mental disturbances are the followings:
Somnolence, sopor, coma.
somnolence - drowsiness/sleepiness
sopor - a deep, lethargic, or unnatural sleep
The most frequently tested reflexes of the upper extremity are:
Radius, ulna, biceps and triceps reflexes.
The most frequently tested reflexes of the lower extremity are:
Patella and Achilles reflexes.
The meningeal excitation signs are:
Vomitus, nausea, bradycardia, fixed occiput (stiffness of the neck), Brudzinsky’s sign, Kernig’s sign.
Describe the investigation of the Lasegue’s sign:
Patient lying on his back and elevating his fully streched legs, pain develops below 90 degrees of elevation.
Gout affects most frequently the following joints:
Metatarso-phalangeal (MTP) articulation of the hallux.
Rheumatoid arthritis affects most frequently the following joints:
Metacarpo-phalangeal (MCP) and proximal interphalangeal (PIP) articulations.
Which of the chronic dermatological diseases involves polyarthritis?
List the main pathological types of breathing:
List the main symptomes of nephrotic syndrome:
Describe Courvoisier’s sign:
Icterus and painless enlargement of the gallbladder.
What may the Courvoisier’s sign indicate?
Carcinoma in the head of the pancreas.
The positive Mennel’s test may indicate:
Disease of the sacroiliacal (SI) articulation.
The spider nevi are characteristic of:
The biceps reflex informs about the following vertebral radix:
The triceps reflex informs about the following vertebral radix:
The radius reflex informs about the following vertebral radix:
The abdominal cutaneous reflex informs about the following vertebral radix:
The patella reflex informs about the following vertebral radix:
The Achilles reflex informs about the following vertebral radix:
What sould be registered by inspection of the abdomen?
The level of the anterior abdominal wall as compared to the anterior wall of the thorax.
Its movement with breathing.
Scars and other alterations (coloration) of the skin.
The umbilicus (normal, extroverted, introverted)
The inspection of the thorax informs about:
The shape of the thorax.
Scars and other abnormalities of the skin (eruption, nevi, etc.).
Extraordinary pulsation of the thorax.
The state of the jugular veins (empty or dilated).
The pectoral (tactile) fremitus informs about:
The resonance and conductance of the lungs and thoracic wall.
Give the normal concentration of serum Na:
Give the normal concentration of serum K:
Give the normal concentration of serum glucose:
Give the normal concentration of the white blood cells: