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- sprozoites invade liver
- Merozoites invade RBC'S
- Gametocytes infect mosquito
- Large RBC's
- Troph irrecgular
- Multi-phases seen, gametocytes appear early
- could see baso stip.
- Normal RBC's
- troph compact - Band Forms may be seen
- Gametocytes seen after weeks
- Most common-
- Delicate ring forms & multiple per cell
- *Crescent shaped gametocyte aftger 7-10 days
- Enlarged RBC's
- Oval shaped RBC's
- Schuffner's dots (eosinophilic stippling)
- Gametocytes seen 4-18 days after
- typically mild ( mono like symptoms)
- Can invade tissue in immunocomp.
- Dx: rising titers of ab's in serum
Babesia species life cycle
⇨ B. microti - US
⇨ B. divergens - Europe
Tick intorduces Sporoozytes
- Trophozoites develop into merozoites
- Gametocytes taken back by tick.
Maltese cross merozoites in RBC's
- Causes Chagas disease (zoonitic disease)
- US & Argentina & Poor rural areas of South America
trypanasomes cruzi Life Cycle
- Insect bites human
- Human scratches bite pushing in trapanosomes which penetrate various cells.
- Trapanosomes transform into amastagote form.
- Multiply in muscle and tissues
- Burst out & Enters blood.
T. cruzi clinical disease
- lesion appears
- Acute phase typically asymptomatic
- Chronic Stage may occur years or decades later
- Dx: Serology or
- motile parasites (S or C shaped)
- Amastagote in muscle
Trypanosoma: African sleeping sickness
⇨rhodesiense - East - wild game
⇨gambiense - West - human
Tsetse fly is host
parasite multiply in gut, transform into epimastigotes than into trypanomatigote
T. brucei disease
- lesion at bite site
- mono type symptoms, joint pain, CNS impairment
T. brucei Diagnosis
- Examine fluid from bite site for trypomastigotes
- * Late infection use CSF or lymph nodes
Leishmania spp. Life Cycle
Tropics and subtropics
- Female Sand Flies - vector borne -
- Injects promastigotes
- Promastigotes phagocytized by macrophages and transform into amastigotes.
- Amastigotes affect tissue & blood
- Caused by obligate intracellular protozoa
- promastigote: 15-30 μm by 1.5- 4.0 μm
- Kinetoplast located in the anterior end, where the flagellum leaves the cell
- Amastigote: inhabits the mammalian host
- Round tooval
- clear nucleaus and Central karyosome
- No free flagellum
- lesion with raised edges and central crater.
- Cutaneous or visceral (kala-azar)
- Fever, wt loss, swollen glans, spleen & liver.
- low wbc,rbc,plt count
Micropsocpy form bone marrow, spleen, or lymph nodes
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