Biochem 501 Lecture 28: Cholesterol Regulation and Lipoproteins

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  1. Regulation of Cholesterol Synthesis
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  2. High Cholesterol is correlated with what
    Heart Disease
  3. Lipoproteins
    Blood borne proteins that transport Cholesterol/lipids
  4. Transport of exogenously derived cholesterol/triglys
    Carried to tissues by lipoproteins called chylomycrons. Try to give off to cells that need it before getting to liver
  5. Transport of endogenously derived choles/triglys
    Carried from liver by very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), after delivery they are intermediate density lipoproteins (IDL), then low density lipoproteins (LDL) which are taken to liver/peripheral tissue cells by receptor mediated endocytosis
  6. Hypercholesterolemia
    • Caused by absence of LDL receptors in liver
    • Causes: Elevation of plasma LDL cholesterol, deposition of cholesterol on blood vessel walls/heart attacks)
  7. What carries excess cholesterol from tissues?
    • High density lipoproteins, to the liver.
    • This cholesterol can be excreted via bile acids
  8. What carries "good" cholesterol and what carries "bad" cholesterol
    • HDL carries good and LDL carries bad.
    • HDL carries good because it is leaving body
    • LDL carries bad because it is depositing it places it shouldn't be.
  9. Blood plasma levels show a massive increase in what after a fatty meal?
    • Lipoproteins, make plasma milky
    • Fat will separate to top after centrifuge or letting it sit, is lighter than plasma
  10. Relative size of Lipoproteins
    • Chylomicrons>VLDL>IDL>LDL>HDL
    • Relative density is opposite
  11. Lipoproteins and what they carry
    • Chylomicrons: Dietary triacylglycerols
    • VLDL,IDL, LDL: Endogenous triacylglycerols, cholesterol esters, cholesterol
    • HDL: Cholesterol Esters and Cholesterol
  12. Apolipoproteins
    • The protein component of lipoproteins, lipoproteins are the whole package
    • Denser lipoproteins have a higher percentage of apoprotein in their make up
  13. Visualization of Lipoproteins size and make-up
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  14. Formation of Cholesterol Esters
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  15. Lipoprotein Structure
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  16. LDL Receptor
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  17. Process of Receptor Mediated Endocytosis
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  18. Triacylglycerol to fatty acid cycle Part One
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  19. Triacylglycerol to fatty acid cycle Part Two
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  20. Triacylglycerol to fatty acid cycle Part Three
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  21. Model for Plasma Triglyceride/Cholesterol Transport
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  22. LDL Receptor Function: Normal
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  23. LDL Receptor Function: Hypercholesterolemia
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  24. LDL Receptor Function: High-Cholesterol Diet
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  25. Atherosclerosis
    • Plaque build-up in blood vessel
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    1.Infection damages inner lining of artery (red)

    • 2.As part of the healing process cholesterol is deposited on the damaged area
    • (yellow)

    3.A thin layer of congealed blood forms over the cholesterol (red)

    4.This layer prevents the body from removing the cholesterol plaque
  26. Consequences of Atherosclerosis
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  27. Treatment of Atherosclerosis
    • Reduce Cholesterol Levels
    • Feed Lovastatin/Compactin to inhibit HMG-CoA reductase
    • OR
    • Feed Cholestyramine to reduce hepatic cholesterol pool
    • Cholesterol then binds to bile salts and is removed
    • This lowered hepatic cholesterol level upregulates LDL receptor levels and helps reduce "bad" cholesterol
  28. Statins do what, how?
    • Reduce LDL levels by inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase
    • This increases LDL receptors which decrease LDL levels

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Anonymous
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Biochem 501 Lecture 28: Cholesterol Regulation and Lipoproteins
Updated:
2013-11-12 19:16:04
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Biochem 501
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Biochem 501
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