Anatomy 1 Forearm and hand muscles

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Anatomy 1 Forearm and hand muscles
2010-06-26 11:36:10

UNLV DPT 744 Gross Anatomy 1 Forearm and hand muscles, nerves, and atre
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  1. Which are the flexor side muscles of the forearm?
    • Brachioradialis
    • Supinator
    • Pronator Teres
    • Flexor Carpi Radiali (FCR) - Has its own passage in the carpal tunnel
    • Palmaris Longus
    • Flexor digitorum superficialis
    • Flexor Digitorum Profundus
    • Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
    • Flexor Pollici Longus (anterior surface of radius)
    • Pronator Quadratus
  2. Brachioradialis OINA
    • O: Proximal 2/3 of the lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus
    • I: lateral surface of the distal end of the radius
    • N: Radial n. before it divides into deep and superficial
    • A: Flexes the Forearm (doesn't act on the hand)
  3. Supinator OINA
    • O: Lateral epicondyle of humerus
    • I: Lateral posterior and anterior surfaces of the proximal third of the radius
    • N: Deep branch of radial n.(The deep branch enters the supinator via the Archade of Froshe, then passes through it via the supinator tunnel)
    • A: supinates the forearm
  4. Pronator Teres OINA
    • O: Medial epicondyle of the humerus and coronoid process of the ulna
    • I: Middle lateral surface of the radius
    • N: Median
    • A: Pronates and flexes the forearm
  5. Flexor Carpi Radialis OINA
    • O: Medial Epicondyle of the humerus
    • I: Base of 2nd metacarpal bone
    • N: Median n.
    • A: Flexes and radial deviates the hand. Radial deviate when cocantraction with extensor carpi radialis occurs
  6. Palmaris Longus OINA
    • O: Medial epicondyle
    • I: Flexor retinaculum and palmar aponeurosis
    • N: Median n.
    • A: Flexes the hand
  7. Flexor Digitorum Superficialis OINA
    • O: Medial epicondyle, corocoid process, anterior border of the radius
    • I: Bodies of middle phlanges of the medial 4 digits
    • N: Median n
    • A: Flexes the middle phlanges of the medial 4 digits, proximal phalanges, and the hand
  8. Flexor Carpi Ulnaris OINA
    • O: Medial epicondyle, olecranon, ulna
    • I: Pisiform, hook of hamate, 5th metacarpal
    • N: Ulnar n
    • A: Flexes and ulnar deviates hand when cocontraction with extensor carpi ulnaris occurs.
  9. Flexor Digitorum Profundus OINA
    • O: Prox 3/4 of medial and anterior surface of ulna, and interosseous membrane
    • I: Base of distal phalanges of the medial 4 digits
    • N: Medial part is ulna, Lateral part is median n.
    • A: flexes distal phalanges of the medial 4 digits
  10. Flexor pollicis longus OINA
    • O: Anterior surface of the radius and interosseous membrane
    • I: Base of the distal phalanx of the thumb
    • N: anterior interosseous n. (branch off of median n)
    • A: Flexes the phalanges of the thumb
  11. Pronator Quadratus OINA
    • O: Distal anterior surface of ulna
    • I: Distal, anterior surface of radius
    • N: Anterior interosseous n. (branch of the median n)
    • A: Pronates the forearm
  12. What are the extensor muscles?
    • Extensor carpi ulnaris
    • Extensor carpi radialis brevis
    • Extensor carpi radialis longus
    • Extensor digitorum communs
    • Extensor digiti minimi
    • Abductor pollicis longus
    • Extensor pollicis brevis
    • Extensor pollici longus
    • Extensor indicis
  13. Extensor Carpi Ulnaris OINA
    • O: Lat. Epi
    • I: Base of 5th Metacarpal
    • N: Posterior interosseous (continous with deep radial n.)
    • A: Extends the wrist, and ulnar deviates when concontracted with the Flexor carpi ulnaris
  14. Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis OINA
    • O: Lat. Epi.
    • I: Base of 3rd metacarpal
    • N: Deep Radial n.
    • A: Extends and radial deviates hand
  15. Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus OINA
    • O: Lateral supracondylar ridge
    • I: Base of 2nd metacarpal
    • N: Radial n.
    • A: Extend and radial deviate hand
  16. What is the difference between the ext carp rad brev/long?
    The brevis attaches on the lateral epicondyle while the longus actually attaches on the lateral epicondylar ridge, making it longer. The brevis attaches on the 3rd metacarpl, while the longus attaches on the 2nd metacarpal.
  17. Extensor digitorum OINA
    • O: Lat. Epi
    • I: Extensor Expansions
    • N: Posterior Interosseous n (continuos with deep radial n.)
    • A: Extends the phalanges of digits 2-5
  18. Extensor digiti minimi OINA
    • O: Ulnar side of extensor digitorum
    • I: Extensor expansion of digit 5
    • N: Posterior Interosseous n. (continuous with deep radial n.)
    • A: Extends the 5th digit
  19. Abductor Pollicis Longus OINA
    • O: Post surface of middle ulna, radius, and interosseous membrane
    • I: Base of 1st metacarpal
    • N: Posterior Interosseous n
    • A: Abducts thumb
  20. Extensor Pollicis Brevis OINA
    • O: Middle 3rd of post surface of radius and interosseous membrane
    • I: Base of the proximal phalan of the thumb
    • N: Posterior Interrosseous n
    • A: Extends the thumb
  21. Extensor Indicis OINA
    • O: posterior surface of the ulna and interosseous membrane
    • I: Extensor digitorum tendon to index finger
    • N: Posterior Interrosseous n
    • A: Extends the index finger
  22. What are the Thenar Muscles?
    • Abductor pollicis brevis
    • Flexor pollicis brevis
    • Opponens pollicis
  23. What are the hypothenar muscles?
    • Abductor digiti minimi
    • Flexor digiti minimi brevis
    • Opponens digiti minimi
  24. What are the adductor muscles of the thumb?
    Adductor Pollicis: Oblique head and Transverse Head
  25. What are the Mid-plamar muscles?
    • Lubricals
    • 1 and 2 median n
    • 3 and 4 ulnar n
  26. What are the interosseous muscles?
    • Palmar PAD3
    • Dorals DAB4
  27. What action do the Lumricals produce?
    They cause the extension of the phalanges and flexion of the MCP joint
  28. What is the action of the palmar interosseous muscles?
    The palmar muscles are the 3 adductor muscles of the hand.
  29. What is the action of the Dorsal interosseous muscle?
    They abuduct the fingers. The Adduct the 3 middle digits. The pollicis has it's own abductors. The abductor poolicis longus that runs on the dorsal for arm, and the abductor pollicics breveis which is the most superficial thenar muscle (others are the flexor policis brevis, and the opponens pollicis). The medial digit (digiti minimi) also has it's own abductor (the abbuctor digiti minimi) It has has the flexor digiti minimi brevis and the opponens digiti minimi
  30. Which carpal bone is most likely to suffer from avascular necrosis following injury?
  31. What type of joint are the intercarpal joints?
    They are synovial hingejoints
  32. What is the thick fascia on the posterior side of the wrist? What does it do?
    Extensor retinaculum. It preventst the extensor muscles from bowing during contraction.
  33. What is the thick fascial tissus on the anterior side of the wrist? What does it do? What structures are involved?
    • The Flexor Retinaculum
    • It spans from the hook of the hamate and the pisiform to the scaphoid and the trapezium creating a tunnal called the carpal tunnel. Carpal, makes sense!
    • The flexor digitorum superficialis/profundus, the Flexor carpi Radialis, the Flexor pollicis longus, TENDONS and the median nerve The ulnar nerve and artery pass through the guyon tunnel.
  34. Where is the distal attachment of the palmaris longus and what is its function? Where does it attach?
    • The palmar aponeurosis. It provides attachment for the palmaris longus to help flex the wrist. It also serves to protect the tendons and structures in the palm of the hand.
    • It spreads from the flexor retinaculum and the heads of the metacarpals then spans into four bands that adhere to the fibrous tissues of the proximal phlanges.
  35. What structures of the hand does the median nerve innervate?
    • The three thenar muscles (abductor poolicis brevis, opponens pollicis, flexor pollicis brevis [longus is in the anterior compartment])
    • Lumbricals 1 and 2 (3 and 4 are innervated by the ulnar n)
    • The lateral half of the flexor digitorum profundus (ulnar supplies the medial half)
    • The anterior sensory of the lateral palm and the first 3.5 digits (usually)
  36. What structures of the hand does the ulnar nerve supply?
    • Lumbricals 3 and 4
    • Palmar and Dorsal Interosseous
    • The Adductor pollicis longus oblique and transverse heads
    • The hypothenar muscles (abductor digiti minimi brevis, flexor digiti minimi brevis, opponenes digiti minimi
    • Sensory for the last 1.5 fingers, anterior and posterior surface
  37. What structures of the hand does the radial nerve supply?
    • It deosn't supply motor innervation.
    • It does supply the dorasl sensory innervation for the lateral 3 of the palm (no digits)
  38. Where does the radial n pass into the forearm?
    • I enters by crossing anterior to the lateral epicondyle, between the brachialis and the brachioradialis.
    • The brachioradialis is the las nerve it supplies before dividing into the deep and super ficial radial n.
    • The deep radial dives into the archade of Froshe and runs through the supinator tunnel.
    • It becomes the posterior interosseous n. and passes "posterior" duh, to the interosseous memebrane and innervates many muscles
  39. Which muscles does the posterior interosseous n innervate?
    • the extenosr digitorum communs
    • extensor digiti minimi
    • Extensor indicies
    • Extensor pollicis longus
    • Extensor pollicis brevis
    • Abductor pollicis longus
    • (so pretty much all the extensors that aren't "carpi radialis" extensors)
    • It should end here because it doesn't innervate and of the muscles of the hand.
  40. What happens with the superficial radial n?
    It runs distally to provide cutaneous and articular innervation of the dorsum of the hand.
  41. Which artery supplies blood to the posterior surface of the forearm?
    The posterior interosseous artery. Which is a branch of the common interosseous artery. Which is a branch of the ulnar artery. Which is a branch of the brachial artery. Which is the continuation of the axillary artery. Which is a continuation of the subclavian arteray.