Hazmat.txt

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SneezerT
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Hazmat.txt
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2010-06-25 20:49:39
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Hazmat chapters 22 and 23
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  1. 2 types of Aboveground Storage tanks.
    Non Pressure tanks (atmospheric tanks), and Pressure tanks
  2. Non Pressure storage tanks (atmospheric tanks) have a pressure up to?
    0.5 psi
  3. Low Pressure storage tanks have pressures between.
    0.5 psi to 15 psi
  4. High pressure storage tanks have pressures above.
    15 psi
  5. Bulk transport containers can be divided into 3 main categories determined by the mode of transportation.
    Tank and other rail cars (railroad), Cargo tanks (highway), and Intermodal containers (highway, railroad, or marine vessel)
  6. CBRNE
    Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosive
  7. What is the pressure of a High Pressure Cargo tank. MC331 (highway)
    Above 100 psi
  8. MC306-406 (highway)
    No pressure petroleum tanker, Egg or eliptical shape back
  9. MC 307 (highway)
    Low pressure, Horse shoe shape back
  10. MC312 (highway)
    Ribbed outer shell for transferring heavy corrosives
  11. Compressed gas tube trailer has a pressure between. (highway)
    3000 psi - 5000 psi
  12. 2 types of Intermediate Bulk Containers. (IBC)
    • Flexible Intermediate Bulk Container (FIBC), and Rigid Intermediate Bulk Container (RIBC).
    • Both are called "totes"
  13. Intermediate Bulk Containers are used to carry what? What is their capacity?
    Liquids, fertilizers, solvents, and other chemicals. They may have capacities up to 400 gallons.
  14. Ton containers
    Tanks that have capacities of 2000 lbs and are typically stored on their sides due to convex of concave heads. They commonly contain chlorine.
  15. Non Bulk packaging types
    Bags, Carboys and Jerry Cans, Cylinders, Drums, and Dewar Flasks (cryogenic liquids)
  16. Most Radioactive Materials are shipped in 4 basic types of containers/packaging.
    Type A, Type B, Industrial, or Excepted.
  17. What Radioactive Material is usually shipped in Type C containers?
    High-activity materials like Plutonium
  18. The 2 levels of training required for first responders in regard to hazardous materials.
    Awareness Level and Operations Level
  19. SAR
    Supplied Air Respirators. An atmosphere supplying respirator in which the user gets air from a supply hose located out of the IDLH atmosphere.
  20. Length of the air hose on the SAR.
    up to 300ft.
  21. APR
    Air Purifying respirator. Contains an air purifying canister or cartridge that removes specific contaminants found in ambient air.
  22. 3 types of APR cartridges.
    Particulate removing APR's, Vapor and gas removing APR's, and Combination particulate and vapor and gas removing APR's. No single canister protects against all chemical hazards.
  23. PAPR
    Powered Air Purifying Respirator. Uses a blower to pass contaminated air through a canister to remove the contaminants and supply purified air to the facepiece.
  24. Particulate Removing Filters are divided in 9 classes, 3 categories of filter degradation, and three levels of filtration. What are the 3 filtration levels?
    95%, 99%, and 99.97%
  25. Escape Respirators are generally designed for how long a use?
    15 min.
  26. 2 types of high temperature protective clothing.
    Proximity suits and Fire entry suits
  27. What is the temperature that fire entry suits protect to?
    2000o F
  28. 2 types of Chemical Protective Clothing. (CPC)
    Liquid splash protective clothing and Vapor protective clothing.
  29. What are the U.S. EPA levels of protection?
    Level A, Level B, Level C, and Level D.
  30. What is Level A?
    Level A provides the highest level of protection against vapors, gases, mists, and particles from the respiratory tract, eyes, and skin.
  31. What is Level B?
    Level B has the highest level of respiratory protection and less protection of the skin. This ensemble provides protection against splashes from hazardous chemicals.
  32. What is Level C?
    Level C is the same as Level B except that it has an Air Purifying Respiration device instead of SCBA. This ensemble provides protection against splashes from hazardous chemicals.
  33. What is Level D?
    Typical work uniforms or street clothes. No need for respiratory protection and minimal skin protection.
  34. The NFPA standard for performance requirements for 3 classes or PPE ensembles that are used in situations involving chemical of biological terrorism agents.
    NFPA 1994
  35. Name the 3 NFPA 1994 classes.
    Class 1, Class 2, and Class 3.
  36. What is NFPA 1994 Class 1?
    Ensemble that provides the highest degree of protection. They are designed to protect responders at these chemical and biological terrorism incidents. Whenever the identity of a vapor is unknown. When vapor protection is needed. Anytime liquid contact is expected and is not permitted because it poses a serious health risk.
  37. What is NFPA 1994 Class 2?
    To provide necessary sufficient vapor protection for the intended operation. When direct contact with liquids is likely. When victims are not ambulatory but are showing signs of exposure.
  38. What is NFPA 1994 Class 3?
    To provide necessary sufficient liquid protection for the intended operation necessary. When direct contact with liquid droplets is likely. When victims are impaired but ambulatory.
  39. Heat Stroke
    Heat illness caused by heat exposure, resulting in the body's failure of the heat regulating mechanism. High fever of 105o F-106o F, dry red hot skin, rapid strong pulse, deep breaths, and convulsions. May result in coma or death.
  40. Heat Exhaustion
    Heat illness caused by exposure to excessive heat. Weakness, cold clammy skin, heavy perspiration, rapid and shallow breathing, weak pulse, dizziness, and sometimes unconsciousness.
  41. Heat Cramps
    Heat illness resulting from prolonged exposure to high temperatures. Excessive sweating, muscle cramps in the abdomen and legs, faintness, dizziness, and exhaustion.
  42. Heat Rash
    Condition that develops from continuous exposure to heat and humid air. Aggravated by clothing that rubs the skin, reduces the individuals tolerance to heat.
  43. MOPP
    Mission Oriented Protective Posture. Ensembles used by the military to protect against chemical, biological, and radiological hazards.
  44. 6 different levels of MOPP
    0-4 and Alpha
  45. To prevent or reduce effects of heat exposure a person should drink.
    7 ounces of fluid every 15-20 minutes.
  46. Radiological Hazards
    Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Neutron.
  47. Alpha
    Energetic, positively charged particles that lose energy when passed through matter. They are usually blocked by the outer dead layer of skin, and can be stopped completely by a sheet of paper. They are commonly emitted from uranium and radium.
  48. Beta
    Fast moving, positively or negatively charged electrons emitted from the nucleus during radioactive decay. Exposure from sources such as tritium, carbon-14, and strontium-90. Able to penetrate the skin and cause radiation damage, but causes more damage from being ingested or inhaled. Beta particles travel distances up to 20 ft. (6m) but can be stopped by a layer of clothing or 2-3 millimeters of aluminum.
  49. Gamma
    High energy photons. Often accompany the emission of alpha of beta particles from a nucleus. A naturally occurring source is potassium-40, industrial sources include cobalt-60, iridium-192, and cesium-137. They can pass easily through the human body or be absorbed by tissue. 2ft of concrete or 2in of lead can stop gamma rays.
  50. Nuetron
    Ultra high energy particles that have a physical mass like alpha or beta radiation but no electrical charge. They are highly penetrating and difficult to measure in the field and is usually estimated based on gamma measurements.
  51. Radiation doses
    Acute dose and Chronic dose.
  52. Acute dose
    Exposure to a large dose of radiation received in a short period of time.
  53. Chronic dose
    Small amounts of radiation received over a long period of time.
  54. 3 Radiation Protection Strategies
    Time, Distance, and Shielding.
  55. 2 classes of Asphyxiants
    Simple and Chemical.
  56. Simple Asphyxiant
    Gases that displace the oxygen necessary for breathing.
  57. Chemical Asphyxiant
    Substances that prohibit the body from using oxygen.
  58. 4 routes of entry for hazardous materials
    Inhalation, Ingestion, Contact, and Absorption.
  59. LD
    Lethal Dose, Minimum amount of solid or liquid that when ingested, absorbed, or injected through the skin will cause death.
  60. LD50
    Median Lethal Dose, Statistically derived single dose of a substance that can be expected to cause death in 50% of animals when administered by the oral route.
  61. LDLO, or LDL
    Lethal Dose Low, Lowest administered dose of a material capable of killing a specified test species.
  62. LC
    Lethal Concentration, Minimum concentration of an inhaled substance in the gaseous state that will be fatal to the test group (usually within 1 to 4 hours).
  63. LCLO or LCL
    Lethal Concentration Low, Lowest Concentration of a gas or vapor capable of killing a specified species over a specified time.
  64. TLV
    Threshold Limit Value, Concentration of a given material in parts per million (ppm) that may be tolerated for an 8 hour exposure during a regular workweek without ill effects.
  65. TLV/STEL
    Threshold Limit Value / Short Term Exposure Limit, 15 min. exposure with a 60 min. break in between but not more than 4 times daily. This exposure can be tolerated without any ill effects.
  66. TLV/C
    Threshold Limit Value / Ceiling, Maximum concentration of a given material in parts per million (ppm) that should not be exceeded, even instantaneously.
  67. Corrosive Material
    Gaseous, liquid or solid material that can burn, irritate, or destroy human skin tissue and severely corrode steel.
  68. Irritant / Irritating Material
    Liquid or solid that upon contact with fire or exposure to air emits dangerous or intensely irritating fumes.
  69. Convulsant
    Poison that causes an exposed individual to have convulsions.
  70. Carcinogen
    Cancer producing substance.
  71. Allergen
    Material that can cause an allergic reaction of the skin or respiratory system.
  72. Sensitizer
    Chemicals that cause a substantial proportion of exposed people or animals to develop an allergic reaction after repeated exposure to the chemical.
  73. 4 Etiological / Biological Hazards
    Viral Agents, Bacterial Agents, Rickettsias, and Biological Toxins.
  74. Viral Agents
    The simplest types of microorganisms that can only replicate themselves in the living cells of their hosts. Viruses do not respond to antibiotics.
  75. Bacterial Agents
    Microscopic single celled organisms. Most bacteria do not cause disease in people, but when they do, 2 different mechanisms are possible; invading the tissue or producing poisons (toxins).
  76. Rickettsias
    Specialized bacteria that live and multiply in the gastrointestinal tract of arthropod carriers (ticks and fleas). They are smaller than most bacteria but larger than viruses. Single celled organisms, like bacteria, with their own metabolisms, and are susceptible to broad spectrum antibiotics. Most are only spread by the bite an infected arthropods and not through human contact.
  77. Biological Toxins
    Poisons produced by living organisms. Some have been manufactured synthetically in laboratories for purposes of biological warfare.
  78. 2 most common Mechanical Hazards
    Striking and Friction Exposures.
  79. Striking
    An injury as a result from direct contact with an object from an explosion caused by failure of a pressurized container, a bomb.
  80. Friction
    An injury from portions of the body rubbing against an abrasive surface, causing raw skin (abrasions), blisters, and burns.
  81. 4 hazards from an explosion
    Blast Pressure Wave (Shock Wave), Shrapnel Fragmentation, Seismic Effect, and Incendiary Thermal Effect.
  82. 3 physical states of matter
    Gas, Liquid, and Solid.
  83. Vapor Pressure
    The pressure exerted by a saturated vapor above (vapors released by a liquid) it's own liquid in a closed container.
  84. Boiling Point
    The temperature that which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to or greater than the atmospheric pressure. It is the temperature at which a liquid changes to a gas at a given pressure.
  85. BLEVE
    Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion
  86. Vapor Density
    The weight of a given volume of pure vapor or gas compared to the weight of an equal volume of dry air at the same temperature and pressure. Vapor density less than 1 indicates a vapor lighter than air, while greater than 1 indicates a vapor heavier than air.
  87. Solubility
    Ability of a liquid or solid to mix with or dissolve in water.
  88. Miscibility
    The degree or readiness to which 2 or more gases or liquids are able to mix with or dissolve into each other.
  89. Specific Gravity
    The weight of a substance compared to the weight of an equal volume of water. Specific gravity less than 1 indicates a substance lighter than water and will float, while greater than 1 indicates a substance heavier than water and will sink.
  90. Persistence
    The ability of a chemical to remain in the environment.
  91. Reactivity
    The relative ability of a substance to undergo a chemical reaction with another material.
  92. 3 sides of the Reactivity Triangle
    Oxidizing Agent, Reducing Agent, and Activation Energy.
  93. Activation Energy
    One side of the Reactivity Triangle. The energy to get a chemical reaction started.
  94. Oxidizing Agent
    One side of the Reactivity Triangle. Provides the oxygen necessary for the chemical reaction to take place. Examples: Oxygen, Organic Peroxides, and Alkyl Nitrates.
  95. Reducing Agent
    One side of the Reactivity Triangle. The fuel source for the reaction. It combines with the oxygen in such a way that energy is released. Examples: Heat, Shock, Radiation, and Light.
  96. If it's got a bonnet on it.
    The tank is pressurized.
  97. The UN's 9 hazard classes
    • Class 1 Explosives
    • Class 2 Gases
    • Class 3 Flammable Liquids
    • Class 4 Flammable Solids
    • Class 5 Oxidizing substances
    • Class 6 Poisons or Toxins
    • Class 7 Radioactive materials
    • Class 8 Corrosive substances
    • Class 9 Miscellaneous dangerous substances
  98. Shipping paper name for Air and where
    Air Bill, Cockpit with pilot.
  99. Shipping paper name for Highway and where
    Bill of Lading, Vehicle cab with driver.
  100. Shipping paper name for Rail and where
    Waybill/Consist, Engine with conductor.
  101. Shipping paper name for Water and where
    Dangerous Cargo Manifest, Bridge or pilot house with the captain or master.
  102. The safest sense to use in detection of a hazard
    Vision
  103. Small spills
    53 gallons (200L) or less
  104. Large spills
    53 gallons (200L) or more
  105. Yellow section of the ERG
    Chemical ID number
  106. Orange section of the ERG
    Guide, Go here if the chemical is on fire or not highlighted green.
  107. Green section of the ERG
    Inhalation Hazard and Water Reactivity. Go here if the chemical is highlighted in green and no fire.
  108. 4 ways to use the ERG
    Placards, Container, Chemical name, and Chemical number.
  109. pH scale for pure water or human blood (neutral)
    7
  110. pH scale 8-14
    Bases
  111. pH scale 6-0
    Acids
  112. NFPA 704 system
    Standard system for the identification of the hazards of materials for emergency response on FIXED-STORAGE Facilities.
  113. NFPA System for Fixed Storage Facilities
    NFPA 704
  114. 4 colors of the NFPA 704 diamond shaped marker or sign
    Red, Blue, Yellow, and White.
  115. Red on the NFPA 704 sign
    Flammability
  116. Yellow on the NFPA 704 sign
    Instability
  117. Blue on the NFPA 704 sign
    Health
  118. White on the NFPA 704 sign
    Special Hazards
  119. NFPA 704 numeric rating system and what do they mean?
    • 0-4
    • 0 indicates a minimal hazard
    • 4 indicates a severe hazard
  120. Meaning of the W with a line through it on the NFPA 704 sign
    Indicates an unusual reactivity with water.
  121. How often is the ERG updated?
    every 4 years.
  122. Olfactory Fatigue
    Gradual inability of a person to detect odors after initial exposure. May be extremely rapid in cases involving Hydrogen Sulfide.
  123. CGI
    Combustible Gas Indicator - Used to detect the concentration of combustible gases and vapors in the air. They measure the percentage of LEL, percent of gas by volume. Set to sound alarm if concentrations of 10% or higher are found.
  124. CAM
    Chemical Agent Monitor - Utilize various technologies to specifically detect chemical warfare agents.
  125. FID
    Flame Ionization Detector - Utilize a hydrogen flame to which gaseous materials are exposed. These devices detect organic gases and vapors and are not safe to operate in hazardous (explosive) atmospheres.
  126. PID
    Photo-Ionization Detector - Uses an ultraviolet lamp to ionize samples of gaseous materials. They are used to detect the concentrations of many organic and some inorganic gases and vapors at the same time, and they make good general survey instruments. They are particularly useful when chemical hazards are unidentified or undetermined.
  127. 2, 3, and 4 Monitors
    (CGI) Combustible Gas Indicators are often combined with other common gas sensors (those that detect oxygen, carbon monoxide, or hydrogen sulfide) to form monitors that can detect 2, 3, or 4 gases.
  128. Biological Immunoassay Indicators
    Indicate the presence of biological agents and toxins by detecting the presence of specific antibodies.
  129. Infrared Spectroscopy Device
    Uses Infrared spectroscopy technology to compare the infrared spectra of chemical samples against a library of known spectral signatures.
  130. Raman Spectroscopy
    Uses Light (typically a laser) to compare the spectra signature of chemical samples against a library of known spectral signatures.
  131. Ion-mobility Spectrometers
    Use a radioactive source to ionize samples in order to determine their spectra. These devices are currently used to detect chemical warfare agents and explosives.
  132. Mass Spectrometer
    Ionizes samples in order to determine their composition that is compared to a library of known compositions.
  133. Specific Chemical Monitors
    Fixed devices that sound an alarm when the presence of a certain chemical is detected. Most common is carbon monoxide monitors, but chlorine, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, ethylene oxide, and hydrogen cyanide are also available.
  134. Indicator Papers and pH Meter
    Change colors to indicate the presence of specific hazards such as oxidizers, hydrogen sulfide, and peroxides.
  135. Detector Tubes
    Detect a variety of gases and vapors. Are best used when the chemical is suspected as opposed to trying to identify a complete unknown.
  136. Radiation Monitors
    Detect levels of Alpha, Beta, or Gamma radiation by collecting and counting the number of ions present.
  137. DNA Fluoroscopy Device
    Has the ability to identify specific DNA sequences and identifying types of biological agents and toxins.
  138. Surface Acoustical Wave Device
    Utilizes surface acoustical wave technology to detect nerve agents, blister agents, blood agents, choking agents, and some Toxic Industrial Materials/Toxic Industrial Chemicals (TIMs/TICs)
  139. Personal Dosimeter
    Worn to measure (sometimes identify) an individual's exposure to a particular radiation.
  140. Most important thing to consider about Terrorist Attacks
    A secondary Device.
  141. Toxic Industrial Material/Toxic Industrial Chemical (TIM/TIC)
    Industrial chemical that is toxic at certain concentration and is produced in quantities exceeding 30 tons per year at any one production facility. Readily available and could be used by terrorists to deliberately kill, injure, or incapacitate people.
  142. SLUDGEM
    • Salivation (drooling)
    • Lacrimation (tearing)
    • Urination
    • Defecation
    • Gastrointestinal upset
    • Emesis (vomit)
    • Miosis (pinpoint pupils)
  143. Biological Attacks may take how long for symptoms?
    Hours, or Days to develop.
  144. Radiological Attacks are most likely in what form?
    Dust or Powder.
  145. Conventional Attacks
    A terrorist attack that involves the use of explosive materials and incendiary devices.
  146. The Percentage of illegal drug labs are Meth Labs?
    80% - 90%
  147. The most serious hazard of a Meth Lab.
    Flammability
  148. A Chemical by-product of a meth lab. Is also classified as a warfare choking agent.
    Phosphine Gas
  149. For every pound of meth produced, how many pounds of hazardous waste is produced?
    6lbs
  150. What bean is used to make Ricin?
    Castor Bean
  151. 3 Priorities for all haz mat incidents.
    • 1. Life Safety
    • 2. Incident Stabilization
    • 3. Property Conservation
  152. Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER)
    29 CFR 1910.120
  153. 29 CFR 1910.120
    Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER)
  154. 4 common stages for problem solving and decision making
    • 1. Information gather and analysis stage.
    • 2. Processing and planning stage.
    • 3. Implementation or output stage.
    • 4. Review or evaluation stage.
  155. Mitigate
    To cause to become less harsh or hostile. To alleviate.
  156. Always approach an incident from.
    Upwind, Uphill, Upstream.
  157. NFPA Standard for Vapor Protective Ensembles
    NFPA 1991
  158. NFPA Standard for Liquid Splash Protective Ensembles
    NFPA 1992
  159. NFPA Standard for Open Circuit SCBA
    NFPA 1981
  160. RNIP
    Recognize, Notify, Identify, Protect
  161. Size of Placards
    10 3/4 by 103/4
  162. Cryogenics
    Gases that are converted into liquids by being cooled below -1500F (-1010C)
  163. Ionizing Radiation
    Radiation that has sufficient energy to remove electrons from atoms resulting in a chemical change in the atom.
  164. Electron
    Minute component of an atom that posses a negative charge.
  165. Photon
    Packet of electromagnetic energy.
  166. Sorbent
    Granular, porous filtering material used in vapor or gas removing respirators.
  167. Systemic Effect
    Something that affects an entire system rather than a single location or entity.
  168. Dose
    Quantity of a chemical material ingested or absorbed through skin contact for purposes of measuring toxicity.
  169. MSDS
    Material Safety Data Sheet - Form provided by the manufacturer of chemicals that contains information about chemical composition, physical and chemical properties, health and safety hazards, emergency response procedures, and waste disposal procedures.
  170. Initial isolation Distance
    Distance within which all persons are considered for evacuation in all directions from a hazardous materials incident.
  171. Protective Action Distance
    Downwind distance from a hazardous materials incident within which protective actions should be implemented.
  172. Initial Isolation Zone
    Circular zone (with a radius equivalent to the initial isolation distance) withing which persons may be exposed to dangerous concentrations upwind of the source and may be exposed to life-threatening concentrations downwind of the source.
  173. Shelter in Place
    Having occupants remain in a structure or vehicle in order to provide protection from a rapidly approaching hazard.
  174. Exothermic
    Chemical reaction between 2 or more materials that changes the materials and produces heat, flame, and toxic smoke.
  175. Chemical Warfare Agent
    Chemical substance that is intended for use in warfare or terrorist activities to kill, seriously injure, or seriously incapacitate people through its physiological effects.
  176. RDD
    Radiological Dispersal Device - Device that spreads radioactive contamination over the widest possible area by detonating conventional high explosives wrapped with radioactive material.
  177. Choking Agent
    Chemical warfare agent that attacks the lungs causing tissue damage.
  178. IED
    Improvised Explosive Device - device that is categorized by its container and the way it is initiated; usually homemade, constructed for a specific target, and contained in almost anything.
  179. OSHA 1910.120
    Awareness and Operations levels
  180. NFPA 472
    Standard for Competence of Responders to Hazard Materials/Weapons of Mass Destruction
  181. Dike
    Temporary or permanent barriers that contain or direct the flow of liquids.
  182. Hazard Assessment
    Formal review of the hazards that are used to determine the appropriate level and type of personal and respiratory protection that must be worn. Hazard and risk assessment is a continuous and ongoing process.
  183. Evacuation
    Process of leaving or being removed from a potentially hazardous location.
  184. Topography
    Physical configuration of the land or terrain.
  185. Incident Levels
    Level 1, 2, and 3.
  186. Incident Level 1
    This type of incident is within the capabilities of the fire or emergency services organization or other first responders. A Level 1 incident is the least serious and the easiest to handle.
  187. Incident Level 2
    This type of incident is beyond the capabilities of the first responders on the scene and may be beyond the capabilities of the first response agency/organization having jurisdiction. This level require the services of a formal haz mat response team.
  188. Incident Level 3
    This type of incident requires resources from state/provincial agencies, federal agencies, and/or private industry in addition to unified command. This level is the most serious of all hazardous material incidents. A large-scale evacuation may be required.
  189. Strategic Goals
    Broad Statements of what must be done to resolve the incident. They are prioritized depending on available resources and the particulars of the incident.
  190. Tactical Objectives
    Specific Operations that must be done in order to accomplish those goals.
  191. What is critical to the rapid, effective control of emergency operations?
    Incident Action Plan (IAP)
  192. What are 3 Strategic Modes of Operation?
    Offensive, Defensive, and Non-intervention.
  193. Offensive Strategic Mode of Operation
    A strategy that includes actions to actively control the hazard.
  194. Defensive Strategic Mode of Operation
    A strategy that provides confinement of the hazard to a given are by performing defensive actions such as containing the hazard.
  195. Non-intervention Strategic Mode of Operation
    Isolates the area to protect the public and emergency responders, but allows the incident to run it's course on it's own.
  196. Tactics are measurable in.
    Time and Performance.
  197. Information must be gathered and analyzed so that.
    Necessary modifications may be made to improve the plan if necessary.
  198. Confinement
    The process of controlling the flow of a spill and capturing it at some specified location. Most defensive control options are related to confinement.
  199. Containment
    Act of stopping the further release of a material from it's container.
  200. Radiation
    Energy from a radioactive source emitted in the form of waves or particles.
  201. 2 Tactics Related to controlling chemical and radiological releases
    Confinement and Containment.
  202. If the IAP is effective
    The IC should receive favorable progress reports from tactical and-or task supervisors and the incident should begin to stabilize.
  203. IAP
    Incident Action Plan
  204. Isolation and scene control is one of the primary strategic goals at haz mat incidents and.
    The most important means by which responders can ensure the safety of themselves and others.
  205. Isolation Perimeter
    The boundary established to prevent access by the public and unauthorized persons. It also includes preventing contaminated or potentially contaminated individuals from leaving the scene in order to stop the spread of hazardous materials. It can also be expanded or reduced as needed, and it is used to control both access and egress from the scene.
  206. Hazard Control Zones
    Provide for the scene control required at haz mat and terrorist incidents to protect responders from interference from unauthorized persons, help regulate movement of first responders within the zones, and minimize contamination. Referred to as Hot, Warm, and Cold Zones.
  207. Hot Zone
    (Also called Exclusion Zone) An area surrounding an incident that is potentially very dangerous either because it presents a threat in the form of a hazardous material or the effects thereof, or there are armed and dangerous individuals present (ex. hostage situation).
  208. SWAT
    Special Weapons And Tactics
  209. USAR
    Urban Search And Rescue
  210. JHAT
    Joint Hazard Assessment Team
  211. Warm Zone
    (Also called Contamination Reduction Zone or Corridor) An area adjoining the Hot zone and the Cold zone. It's used as a buffer between the hot and cold zones and is the place to Decontaminate personnel and equipment (The Decon Corridor) exiting the hot zone. PPE is normally required in this zone.
  212. Cold Zone
    (Also called Support Zone) An area that encompasses the warm zone and is used to carry out all logistical support functions of the incident. The multi-agency command post, staging area, donning/doffing area, back up teams, research teams, logistical support, criminal investigation teams, triage/treatment/rehabilitation, and transport areas are located in the cold zone.
  213. Staging Area
    Prearranged, temporary strategic location, away from the emergency scene, where units assemble and wait until they are assigned a position on the emergency scene and from which these resources must be able to respond within 3 minutes of being assigned.
  214. Transportation Area
    Location where accident casualties are held after receiving medical care or triage before being transported to medical facilities.
  215. Decontamination Zone
    Area located in the Warm Zone where contaminated clothing, people, and equipment can be cleaned or secured.
  216. Area or Safe Refuge
    Traditionally in the Warm Zone. Area to wait for evacuation and/or decon. Area where evacuated persons are directed to gather while potential emergencies are addressed, decisions are made, and mitigating activities are begun.
  217. Rehabilitation Area
    Safe location where emergency personnel can rest, sit, and lie down, have food and drink, and have medical conditions evaluated; located in the Cold Zone.
  218. Triage-Treatment Area
    Area where persons are brought for medical assessment and treatment/stabilization; located in the Cold Zone.
  219. EOC
    Emergency Operations Center - Disaster management center for government agencies.
  220. Mutual Aid
    Reciprocal assistance from one fire and emergency services agency to another during an emergency based upon a prearrangement between agencies involved.
  221. Automatic Aid
    Written agreement between 2 or more agencies to automatically dispatch predetermined resources to any fire or other emergency reported in the geographic area covered by the agreement.
  222. Stabilization
    Stage of an incident when the immediate problem or emergency has been controlled, contained, or extinguished.
  223. NRP
    National Response Plan - The process spelled out for all local, state, and federal emergency response plans that must comply with these provisions.
  224. Order of Response to incidents
    Local Authorities then State then the Federal Government.
  225. What is the overall (catch-all) goal of ensuring safety of responders and the public?
    Protection
  226. The first priority at any incident
    The Protection and Safety of emergency responders.
  227. Critical element of a haz mat or terrorist incident.
    Ensuring accountability of all personnel
  228. One of the most important functions of NIMS-ICS
    To provide a means of tracking all personnel and equipment assigned to the incident.
  229. Accountability Systems are especially important for
    Incidents where multiple agencies/organizations may be responding.
  230. Preplan
    Document, developed during the pre-incident planning, that contains the operational plan or set procedures for the safe and efficient handling of emergency situations at a given location.
  231. Types of Accountability Systems
    Fire Service Passport System, T-card Systems for wild land incidents as well as systems that utilize newer technologies such as GIS systems and GPS systems.
  232. Buddy System
    A system of organizing personnel into work groups in such a manner that each member has a buddy or partner, so that nobody is working alone.
  233. The US&R signals and their meanings.
    • 1 long blast (3 seconds long) - Cease Operations-All Quiet
    • 3 short blasts (1 second each) - Evacuate the Area
    • 1 long and 1 short blast - Resume Operations
  234. Who ensures that safety briefings are conducted for personnel entering hazard zones?
    The Safety Officer
  235. Evacuation
    To move all people from a threatened area to a safer place. To evacuate, there must be enough time to warn people, for them to get ready, and for them to leave. Evacuation is the best protective action to carry out. Evacuations can be an expensive, labor intensive operation.
  236. Protection of the Public includes
    Isolating the Area and denying entry, Conducting Rescues, Performing Mass Decontamination, and Providing Emergency Medical Care and First Aid. Additional measures include Evacuation, Sheltering in Place, and Protecting/Defending in Place.
  237. Sheltering in Place
    Direct people to quickly go inside a building and remain inside until danger passes. People inside the structure should close all doors, windows, and turn off all heating and air-conditioning systems.
  238. Protecting/Defending in Place
    An active (offensive) role or aggressive posture to physically protect those in harms way.
  239. Decontamination
    To remove hazardous materials from victims. It is impossible to remove all contaminants, it is done simply to reduce contamination to a level that is no longer harmful. Decontamination also provides victims with psychological reassurance.
  240. The 3 basic principles of any Decontamination
    • 1. Get it off
    • 2. Keep it off
    • 3. Contain it
  241. The 3 types of Decontamination
    • Emergency Decon
    • Mass Decon
    • Technical Decon
  242. Emergency Decontamination
    Removing contamination on individuals in potentially life-threatening situations with or without the formal establishment of a decontamination corridor. The goal is to remove the threatening contaminant as quickly as possible - there is no regard for the environment or property.
  243. Mass Decontamination
    Conducting rapid decontamination of multiple people at one time. May be conducted with or without a formal decon corridor or line. Initiated when the number of victims and time constraints do not allow the establishment of an in-depth decontamination process.
  244. Technical Decontamination
    Using Chemical or physical methods to thoroughly remove contaminants from responders and their equipment. It may also be used on victims in non-life-threatening situations.
  245. Minimum water pressure for a Mass Decon.
    60psi
  246. Standard household water pressure
    between 60psi - 90psi.
  247. 2 groups to split patients into for decon
    Ambulatory and Non-Ambulatory.
  248. START
    Simple Triage And Rapid Treatment/Transport
  249. Ambulatory Victims
    Victims who are able to understand directions, talk, and walk unassisted.
  250. Non-Ambulatory Victims
    Victims who are unconscious, unresponsive, or unable to move unassisted.

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