Protozoa

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ucstudent01
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246563
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Protozoa
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2013-11-12 17:42:01
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Protozoa
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Protozoa
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  1. Intestinal Protozoa

    General Info
    • Fecal/Oral Route
    • NO intermediate host

    • 1-Amoebae  -Move by pseudopods (cysts & trophs)
    • 2-Ciliates - 
    • 3-Flagellates
  2. Protozoa: Amoebae : Entamoeba hartmanni

    Characteristics: Non pathogenic
    • Size is Critical:
    • trophozoites <12μm
    • Central karyosome (like E. histolytica)
    • Uneven peripheral chromatin
    • Cysts <10μm
  3. Protozoa: Amoebae: Entamoeba histolytica

    Characteristics
    • Trophozoite 15-25μm
    • small central karyosome
    • Fine evenly distributed chromatin
    • Cysts 10-20μm 
    • 4 mature nuclei
    • cigar shaped chromatoidal bars
  4. Protozoa: Amoebae: Entamoeba histolytica

    Epidemiology/ Disease
    World wide

    • Invasive intestinal/extraintestinal infection
    • ~ Liver, lung, brain abscesses (extraintestinal)
    • ~ Bloody stools
  5. Protozoa: Amoebae: Entmoeba coli

    Characterisitics - Non pathogenic
    • Trophozoite: average 25μm (15-30μm possible)
    • Large, Ecentric karyosome
    • Coarse, uneven/dark solid chromatin ring
    • Cytoplasm- purple with vacuoles

    • Cyst: 
    • Chromotoidal bars (if present) are splintered
    • Mature - 8 nuclei
  6. Protozoa: Amoebae: Endolimax nana

    Non pathogenic
    Troph: 5-12, large karyosome, no peripheral chrmatin, vacuolated cytoplasm

    • Cyst: 5-12, oval/spherical
    • up to 4 nuclei
  7. Protozoa: Amoebae: Iodamoeba butschlii
    Troph: 6-20, vacuolated cytoplasm, nucleaus, single karyosome with no peripheral chromatin.

    cysts: 6-15, glycogen vacuole (bubble looking)
  8. Protozoa: Ciliates: Balantidium coli

    Characteristics:
    • Largest protozoa associated with humans
    • Uncommon in US
    • Only pathogenic ciliate
    • Troph: oval with vacuoles in cytoplasm
    • Cyst: 45-75um; 2 kidney shaped nuclei

    Stain with idodine
  9. Protozoa: Intestinal Flagellates:
    Dientamoeba fragilis

    Characteristics
    • No Cyst form* Important 
    • 50-80 bi-nucleated, 4-8 karyosomes, 5-12μm
    • Food vacuoles in cytoplasm
    • *carriers, can cause disease
    • Trophs usually have 2 nucleus with fringed edge of flagelete
  10. Protozoa:Flagellate: Giardia lamblia (intestinalis & duodenalis)

    Characterisitics & Identification
    • Identification of cysts or trophozoites in feces, repeat sampling, duodenal fluid for trophs.
    • EIA & IFA common

    • Troph's: 15-18 x 5-10 μm
    • 8 flagella & the ventral side is modified as a sucking disk.

    Cyst's: 8-12 μm Oval & 4 Nuclei
  11. Protozoa:Flagellate: Giardia lamblia (intestinalis & duodenalis)

    Clinical  Disease
    Most common of all protozoa

    • Seen in those camping/drinking from stream
    • Symptoms vary, but diarrhea, abd pain, bloating, nausea, & vomiting, maladsorption

    Incubatin 1 - 14 dyas
  12. Protozoa:Flagellate: Giardia lamblia (intestinalis & duodenalis)

    Life Cycle
    trophozoites are passed in the stool but don't survive. It is the cyst form that contaminates food & water
  13. Protozoa: Flagellate: Tichomonas Vaginalis

    Characterisitics
    Keep specimen warm and wet.

    Wet mount jerky motility

    Culture availble takes up to 7 days
  14. Protozoa: flagellate: Chilomastix mesnili
    • Found in monkeys
    • troph - pear shape
    • cyst - lemon shpae
  15. Protozoa: Flagellate: Enteromonas hominis

    Characterisitcs
    • Small flagellate, rarely encountered
    • Warm & temerate climates
    • Non pathogenic
  16. Protozoa: flagellate: Retortamonas intestinalis
    • small flagellate 
    • warm & temperate climates
    • Non pathogenic
  17. Protozoa: Intestinal coccidia

    *Characterisitics
    • Tissue parasite with sexual and asexual cycles
    • Sexual: ingest oocysts
    • Asexual: ingest tissue infected with sporzoites.
    • Life cycle include invasion of mucosal epi's.
  18. Protozoa: Intestinal coccidia:
    Cryptospodridium parvum

    Characteristics
    • Nosocomial infections
    • immunocompromised: chronic, life threatening diarrhea

    • Oocysts infective when passed.
    • RED = Oocyst & green = yeast

    Modified Ziehl Nielsen acid fast stain
  19. Protozoa: coccidia: Isospora belli

    Characteristics
    • Direct Exam: Modified acid fast stain
    • Mature oocyst 20-30μm with 2 sporocysts

    Seen primarily in AIDS patients.
  20. Protozoa: coccidia: Cyclospora cayetanensis

    Clinical Disease
    • Infection in small intestine
    • Nepal, Pakistan, & India

    • Vomiting, wt loss, explosive diarrhea, fever, myalgia, fatigue, or asymptomatic
    • Self limiting 3-4 days
  21. Protozoa: coccidia: Cyclospora cayetanensis

    Diagnosis/ Life Cycle
    • Asexual/Sexual
    • Merozoites are called Meronts
    • Oocytsts: Sperical 8-10μm, mature have 2 sporocysts present

    • Dx: Light microsocopy of stool or 
    • Variable acid fast when stained by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen method
  22. Protozoa: Microsporidia
    • phylum
    • 1000 species
    • 7 are human pathogens 
    • (entercytozoon & entercephalitozoon)
    • Obligate intracellular parasite
    • Seen in AIDS patients
    • Infects: eyes, DNS, GI
    • Spores 1.5-3um & confused with yeast
  23. Tissue Protozoa: Acanthamoeba & Naegleria sp.

    Life cycle and characteristics of both
    • Disease primarily in immunocomp. opportunistic only
    • Causes encephalitis 
    • *Free living amoeba in water
  24. Tissue Protozoa: Acanthamoeba:
    • Enter through broken skin or repiratory tract (lungs or skin through blood to CNS)causing: 
    • Granulomatous amebic encephalitis.
    • Specimen: CSF

    Direct exam for motile trophs,  single nuclei with large karyosome, or cysts have starylike edges
  25. Tissue Protozoa: Naeglaria fowleri disease
    troph enter through olfactory (nose, mouth) causing: Acute primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM)

    <10 days, death/coma

    Dx: microscopic exam of CSF, wet mount may detect motile trophs.

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