EPPP All 2

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  1. Reciprocal Inhibition
    Two incompatible responses cannot be experienced at the same time. Instead, the stronger response will inhibit the weaker.

    (Treatments based on behaviorism)
  2. Who developed systematic desensitization?
  3. Sensate Focus
    Developed by Masters & Johnson

    Uses pleasure as the counter conditioning response to inhibit performance anxiety during sex.
  4. Implosive Therapy
    Developed by Stampfl

    Client exposed to feared object in imagination and therapist interprets possible psychosexual themes.
  5. Primary reinforcers
    Reinforce everyone at all ages and all cultures (e.g., food)
  6. Secondary Reinforcers
    Acquire reinforcing value through training or experience (e.g., praise)
  7. Generalized Conditioned Reinforcers
    Not inherently reinforcing, but take on reinforcing value because person can use them to access other reinforcers (e.g., tokens, money)
  8. Contingency Contracting
    Operant conditioning in naturalistic environment.

    Used when problem interaction between 2 or more people. Therapist helps identify the behaviors people most want changed then helps negotiate a contract for their exchange.
  9. Premack Principle
    Grandma's Rule

    Eat your peas first then you can go play.

    A high frequency behavior used to reinforce a low frequency behavior.
  10. Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviors
    Combines extinction and positive reinforcement.

    Boy ignored when he speaks out of turn but praised when he waits his turn
  11. Thought Stopping
    Client snaps a rubber band on the wrist whenever thinking an undesirable thought.
  12. Overcorrection
    Type of punishment that involves restitution or reparation, as well as physical guidance. 

    E.g., child messes up living room, has to clean living room and one other room
  13. Symbolic Modeling
    Involves observing a film in which a model (frequently one similar to the viewer) enjoys progressively more intimate interaction with a feared object or anxiety-producing setting.
  14. Live or In-Vivo Modeling
    Client observes a live model engage in graduated interactions with a feared object or anxiety-producing situation.
  15. Participant Modeling
    Live modeling plus contact with the model.

    Particularly appropriate for children.
  16. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy
    • Ellis
    • Cognitive-Behavioral
    • ABC Model (activating event, belief, consequence)
    • Identifying the nature of client's irrational beliefs and disputing them
    • Active and confrontative
  17. Terms from Beck's Cognitive Therapy
    • Automatic thoughts
    • Logical errors
    • Faulty conceptions
    • Self-signals
  18. Beck's maladaptive cognitive triad
    Causes depression

    • 1. Negative view of the self (defective & inadequate)
    • 2. Negative view of the world (expectation of failure & punishment)
    • 3. Negative view of the future (continued hardship)
  19. Two programs associated with Meichenbaum's CBM
    • 1. Self-instructional training
    • 2. Stress innoculation training
  20. 5 Step Procedure for Self-Instruction Therapy
    • 1. Therapist modeling
    • 2. Therapist verbalization
    • 3. Patient verbalization
    • 4. Patient silently talks through the task
    • 5. Independent task performance
  21. Protocol analysis
    Research method that is used when a person is learning a task and is asked to describe aloud the steps being taken to solve the task. Used to gain access to people's problem solving strategies.
  22. 3 Phases of Stress Inoculation Training
    • 1. Education and cognitive preparation
    • 2. Coping skills acquisition
    • 3. Application of skills in imagination and in vivo
  23. Self-Control Model of Depression
    Depression (and lack of involvement in activities) is a result of negative self-evaluations, lack of self-reinforcement, and high rates of self-punishment

  24. Relapse Prevention

    Attempts to minimize the effects of relapses by teaching recovering addicts to view relapses as inevitable experiences to be learned from.
  25. 4 Conditions to Participate in DBT
    • Work for a specified period (1 yr) and attend all sessions
    • Work on reducing suicidal behavior
    • Work on behaviors that interfere with therapy
    • Attend skills training
  26. Primary Modes of DBT Treatment
    • 1. Individual therapy
    • 2. Telephone contact
    • 3. Skills training (group)
    • 4. Therapist consultation
  27. Primary Process (Freud)
    • Dreams and hallucinations
    • Urgent attempt at tension reduction, even at the expense of reality
  28. Secondary Process (Freud)
    • Thinking and speaking
    • Characterized by a focus on meeting the demands of reality and by the ability to delay gratification
  29. Displacement
    Transference of emotions from the original object to some substitute or symbolic representation (e.g., scared of sex -- snake phobia)
  30. Reaction Formation
    Engaging in behaviors that are the exact opposite of the id's real urges
  31. Intellectualization
    Focusing on intellectual component to distract the self from one's own feelings
  32. Rationalization
    Coming up with self-satisfying, yet incorrect reasons for one's behavior
  33. Sublimation
    Finding socially acceptable ways of discharging energy from unconscious forbidden desire
  34. According to Millon, defense mechanism used by schizoid personality disorder:
  35. According to Millon, defense mechanism used by narcissistic personality disorder:
  36. According to Millon, defense mechanism used by paranoid personality disorder:
  37. According to Millon, defense mechanism used by borderline personality disorder:
  38. According to Millon, defense mechanism used by histrionic personality disorder:
  39. According to Millon, defense mechanism used by DEPENDENT personality disorder:
  40. According to Millon, defense mechanism used by ANTISOCIAL personality disorder:
    Acting out
  41. Acting out
    Defense mechanism

    Performing an extreme behavior in order to express thoughts or feelings the person feels incapable of otherwise expressing
  42. Alloplastic reactions
    • Reaction to stress involving trying to change the external environment or blaming external environment
    • Typical of borderlines, narcissistic personality disorder
  43. Autoplastic reactions
    • Involve trying to change oneself or blaming oneself
    • Typical of MDD, anxiety
  44. Four steps of psychoanalysis
    • Clarification
    • Confrontation
    • Interpretation
    • Working through
  45. Freud's 5 Psychosexual Stages
    • 1. Oral
    • 2. Anal
    • 3. Phallic
    • 4. Latency
    • 5. Genitals
  46. Psychophysics
    The study of the relationship between the magnitude of a physical stimulus and the internal sensation associated with that magnitude.
  47. Identity Process Theory
    • Proposes that adjustment to aging can be conceptualized as involving 3 processes:
    • 1) Identity assimilation (maintaining self-consistency)
    • 2) Identity accommodation (making changes in the self)
    • 3) Identity balance (maintaining a sense of self but changing when necessary)
  48. Emotional Reasoning
    One of several cognitive distortions described by Beck. Refers to a person believing that because he/she feels a negative emotion, there must be a corresponding negative external situation.
  49. Minimization
    Seeing something as less significant than it really is.
  50. Selective abstraction
    When one focuses on a detail, taken out of context, at the expense of other information.
  51. Personalization
    The attribution of external events to oneself without evidence of a causal connection.
  52. Social Phobia
    Characterized by a marked and persistent fear of one or more social and performance situations in which the person is exposed to unfamiliar people or to possible scrutiny by others. Exposure to the feared social situation almost invariably provokes anxiety, which may take the
  53. High Context
    Communication style haracterized by reliance on nonverbal and culturally-shared cues and is characteristic of a number of cultural/racial minority groups including African-, Hispanic-, and Asian-Americans.
  54. Beta
    The probability of making a Type II error, or of retaining a false null hypothesis.  (The probability of failing to detect a true effect.)
  55. Seroconversion
    Development of antibodies to a particular antigen, or the conversion rom seronegative (HIV neg) to seropositive (HIV pos).
  56. Heinz Hartmann
    • Father of Ego Psychology
    • Ego develops parallel with id
    • Differentiated between defense ego functions and ego autonomous functions (learning, memory, etc.)
  57. Pioneers in psychoanalysis with children
    • Melanie Klein: interpreted play, neutral bond
    • Anna Freud: interpreted words, worked on positive bond with child clients
  58. Ego Psychologists
    • Heinz Hartmann
    • Anna Freud
    • Erik Erikson
  59. Erikson's Psychosocial Stages
    • Trust vs Mistrust (0-18 m)
    • Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt (2-3 yrs)
    • Initiative vs. Guilt (3-5 yrs)
    • Industry vs. Inferiority (6-11 yrs)
    • Identity vs. Role Confusion (12-18 yrs)
    • Intimacy vs. Isolation (19-40 yrs)
    • Generativity vs. Stagnation (40-65 yrs)
    • Ego Integrity vs. Despair (65+)
  60. Donald Winnicott
    • Ego psychologist
    • Good enough mother
    • Pathology comes from abandoning one's true self and adopting a false self
    • Transitional object
  61. Mahler's Six Stages of Development
    • Normal infantile autism
    • Symbiosis
    • Differentiation
    • Practicing
    • Rapprochement
    • Object constancy
  62. Kohut
    • Focus on healthy narcissism (primary narcissism)
    • If selfobject needs met, baby develops healthy sense of self/narcissism
    • Clinically: empathic attunement, prefers interpretations that are "experience near"
  63. Self Object Needs
    • Mirroring (approval and admiration of the baby)
    • Idealizing (presence of adults worthy of idealization)
    • Twinship (the ability to join in and imitate adults
  64. Neo-Freudians
    • Sullivan
    • Horney
    • Fromm
  65. Sullivan's 3 modes of existence
    • Prototaxic
    • Parataxic
    • Syntaxic
  66. Interpersonal Therapy (IPT)
    • Evidence based tx for depression
    • 16 sessions
    • Connects client's presenting problem to interpersonal difficulties
    • Here and now
    • Positive therapeutic alliance
  67. Horney's Neurotic Needs
    • 1. Affection and approval
    • 2. A dominant partner
    • 3. Power
    • 4. Exploitation
    • 5. Prestige
    • 6. Admiration
    • 7. Achievement or ambition
    • 8. Self-sufficiency
    • 9. Perfection
    • 10. Narrow limits to life
  68. Horney's Neurotic Trends
    • Movement toward other people (compliant personality)
    • Movement against other people (aggressive personality)
    • Movement away from other people (detached personality)
  69. Zeigarnik Effect
    The tendency to remember and work on incomplete tasks

    When a person is trying to solve a problem involving recall and comes to an impasse, the brain continues to work unconsciously until a solution is obtained.
  70. Redintigration
    Occurs when something (e.g., a smell from childhood) rapidly unlocks a chain of memories.
  71. Effects of hypnosis
    Can remember more details about a memory, but hypnosis tends to elicit more false memories than true ones. Person tends to have a great deal of confidence in the accuracy of the memory.
  72. Accuracy of long-term memory
    Information in sensory and short-term memory is usually accurate, but process of transferring info into LTM and retrieving it later can distort original info.

    If asked to identify a sentence after longer than 30 seconds, likely to pick a sentence with similar meaning but different wording.
  73. Areas of brain involved with memory
    • Hippocampus
    • Frontal lobe
    • Thalamus
    • Mamillary bodies
    • Basal forebrain
    • ACh
  74. Ebbinghaus
    Plotted curves depicting memory of nonsense syllable lists and found that the greatest amount of forgetting took place within the first hour. (doesn't apply to memory of material that is meaningful)
  75. Paramnesia
    Paramnesia is a distortion of memory and involves confabulation, or the type of errors made when someone is attempting to reconstruct the past.
  76. Retroactive Interference
    Occurs when recently learned material interferes with the ability to recall material learned in the past.
  77. Proactive Interference
    Occurs when previously learned material interferes with the ability to learn or recall current material.
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EPPP All 2
2013-11-15 05:28:20

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