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Two incompatible responses cannot be experienced at the same time. Instead, the stronger response will inhibit the weaker.
(Treatments based on behaviorism)
Who developed systematic desensitization?
Developed by Masters & Johnson
Uses pleasure as the counter conditioning response to inhibit performance anxiety during sex.
Developed by Stampfl
Client exposed to feared object in imagination and therapist interprets possible psychosexual themes.
Reinforce everyone at all ages and all cultures (e.g., food)
Acquire reinforcing value through training or experience (e.g., praise)
Generalized Conditioned Reinforcers
Not inherently reinforcing, but take on reinforcing value because person can use them to access other reinforcers (e.g., tokens, money)
Operant conditioning in naturalistic environment.
Used when problem interaction between 2 or more people. Therapist helps identify the behaviors people most want changed then helps negotiate a contract for their exchange.
Eat your peas first then you can go play.
A high frequency behavior used to reinforce a low frequency behavior.
Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviors
Combines extinction and positive reinforcement.
Boy ignored when he speaks out of turn but praised when he waits his turn
Client snaps a rubber band on the wrist whenever thinking an undesirable thought.
Type of punishment that involves restitution or reparation, as well as physical guidance.
E.g., child messes up living room, has to clean living room and one other room
Involves observing a film in which a model (frequently one similar to the viewer) enjoys progressively more intimate interaction with a feared object or anxiety-producing setting.
Live or In-Vivo Modeling
Client observes a live model engage in graduated interactions with a feared object or anxiety-producing situation.
Live modeling plus contact with the model.
Particularly appropriate for children.
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy
- ABC Model (activating event, belief, consequence)
- Identifying the nature of client's irrational beliefs and disputing them
- Active and confrontative
Terms from Beck's Cognitive Therapy
- Automatic thoughts
- Logical errors
- Faulty conceptions
Beck's maladaptive cognitive triad
- 1. Negative view of the self (defective & inadequate)
- 2. Negative view of the world (expectation of failure & punishment)
- 3. Negative view of the future (continued hardship)
Two programs associated with Meichenbaum's CBM
- 1. Self-instructional training
- 2. Stress innoculation training
5 Step Procedure for Self-Instruction Therapy
- 1. Therapist modeling
- 2. Therapist verbalization
- 3. Patient verbalization
- 4. Patient silently talks through the task
- 5. Independent task performance
Research method that is used when a person is learning a task and is asked to describe aloud the steps being taken to solve the task. Used to gain access to people's problem solving strategies.
3 Phases of Stress Inoculation Training
- 1. Education and cognitive preparation
- 2. Coping skills acquisition
- 3. Application of skills in imagination and in vivo
Self-Control Model of Depression
Depression (and lack of involvement in activities) is a result of negative self-evaluations, lack of self-reinforcement, and high rates of self-punishment
Attempts to minimize the effects of relapses by teaching recovering addicts to view relapses as inevitable experiences to be learned from.
4 Conditions to Participate in DBT
- Work for a specified period (1 yr) and attend all sessions
- Work on reducing suicidal behavior
- Work on behaviors that interfere with therapy
- Attend skills training
Primary Modes of DBT Treatment
- 1. Individual therapy
- 2. Telephone contact
- 3. Skills training (group)
- 4. Therapist consultation
Primary Process (Freud)
- Dreams and hallucinations
- Urgent attempt at tension reduction, even at the expense of reality
Secondary Process (Freud)
- Thinking and speaking
- Characterized by a focus on meeting the demands of reality and by the ability to delay gratification
Transference of emotions from the original object to some substitute or symbolic representation (e.g., scared of sex -- snake phobia)
Engaging in behaviors that are the exact opposite of the id's real urges
Focusing on intellectual component to distract the self from one's own feelings
Coming up with self-satisfying, yet incorrect reasons for one's behavior
Finding socially acceptable ways of discharging energy from unconscious forbidden desire
According to Millon, defense mechanism used by schizoid personality disorder:
According to Millon, defense mechanism used by narcissistic personality disorder:
According to Millon, defense mechanism used by paranoid personality disorder:
According to Millon, defense mechanism used by borderline personality disorder:
According to Millon, defense mechanism used by histrionic personality disorder:
According to Millon, defense mechanism used by DEPENDENT personality disorder:
According to Millon, defense mechanism used by ANTISOCIAL personality disorder:
Performing an extreme behavior in order to express thoughts or feelings the person feels incapable of otherwise expressing
- Reaction to stress involving trying to change the external environment or blaming external environment
- Typical of borderlines, narcissistic personality disorder
- Involve trying to change oneself or blaming oneself
- Typical of MDD, anxiety
Four steps of psychoanalysis
- Working through
Freud's 5 Psychosexual Stages
- 1. Oral
- 2. Anal
- 3. Phallic
- 4. Latency
- 5. Genitals
The study of the relationship between the magnitude of a physical stimulus and the internal sensation associated with that magnitude.
Identity Process Theory
- Proposes that adjustment to aging can be conceptualized as involving 3 processes:
- 1) Identity assimilation (maintaining self-consistency)
- 2) Identity accommodation (making changes in the self)
- 3) Identity balance (maintaining a sense of self but changing when necessary)
One of several cognitive distortions described by Beck. Refers to a person believing that because he/she feels a negative emotion, there must be a corresponding negative external situation.
Seeing something as less significant than it really is.
When one focuses on a detail, taken out of context, at the expense of other information.
The attribution of external events to oneself without evidence of a causal connection.
Characterized by a marked and persistent fear of one or more social and performance situations in which the person is exposed to unfamiliar people or to possible scrutiny by others. Exposure to the feared social situation almost invariably provokes anxiety, which may take the
Communication style haracterized by reliance on nonverbal and culturally-shared cues and is characteristic of a number of cultural/racial minority groups including African-, Hispanic-, and Asian-Americans.
The probability of making a Type II error, or of retaining a false null hypothesis. (The probability of failing to detect a true effect.)
Development of antibodies to a particular antigen, or the conversion rom seronegative (HIV neg) to seropositive (HIV pos).
- Father of Ego Psychology
- Ego develops parallel with id
- Differentiated between defense ego functions and ego autonomous functions (learning, memory, etc.)
Pioneers in psychoanalysis with children
- Melanie Klein: interpreted play, neutral bond
- Anna Freud: interpreted words, worked on positive bond with child clients
- Heinz Hartmann
- Anna Freud
- Erik Erikson
Erikson's Psychosocial Stages
- Trust vs Mistrust (0-18 m)
- Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt (2-3 yrs)
- Initiative vs. Guilt (3-5 yrs)
- Industry vs. Inferiority (6-11 yrs)
- Identity vs. Role Confusion (12-18 yrs)
- Intimacy vs. Isolation (19-40 yrs)
- Generativity vs. Stagnation (40-65 yrs)
- Ego Integrity vs. Despair (65+)
- Ego psychologist
- Good enough mother
- Pathology comes from abandoning one's true self and adopting a false self
- Transitional object
Mahler's Six Stages of Development
- Normal infantile autism
- Object constancy
- SELF PSYCHOLOGY
- Focus on healthy narcissism (primary narcissism)
- If selfobject needs met, baby develops healthy sense of self/narcissism
- Clinically: empathic attunement, prefers interpretations that are "experience near"
Self Object Needs
- Mirroring (approval and admiration of the baby)
- Idealizing (presence of adults worthy of idealization)
- Twinship (the ability to join in and imitate adults
Sullivan's 3 modes of existence
Interpersonal Therapy (IPT)
- Evidence based tx for depression
- 16 sessions
- Connects client's presenting problem to interpersonal difficulties
- Here and now
- Positive therapeutic alliance
Horney's Neurotic Needs
- 1. Affection and approval
- 2. A dominant partner
- 3. Power
- 4. Exploitation
- 5. Prestige
- 6. Admiration
- 7. Achievement or ambition
- 8. Self-sufficiency
- 9. Perfection
- 10. Narrow limits to life
Horney's Neurotic Trends
- Movement toward other people (compliant personality)
- Movement against other people (aggressive personality)
- Movement away from other people (detached personality)
The tendency to remember and work on incomplete tasks
When a person is trying to solve a problem involving recall and comes to an impasse, the brain continues to work unconsciously until a solution is obtained.
Occurs when something (e.g., a smell from childhood) rapidly unlocks a chain of memories.
Effects of hypnosis
Can remember more details about a memory, but hypnosis tends to elicit more false memories than true ones. Person tends to have a great deal of confidence in the accuracy of the memory.
Accuracy of long-term memory
Information in sensory and short-term memory is usually accurate, but process of transferring info into LTM and retrieving it later can distort original info.
If asked to identify a sentence after longer than 30 seconds, likely to pick a sentence with similar meaning but different wording.
Areas of brain involved with memory
- Frontal lobe
- Mamillary bodies
- Basal forebrain
Plotted curves depicting memory of nonsense syllable lists and found that the greatest amount of forgetting took place within the first hour. (doesn't apply to memory of material that is meaningful)
Paramnesia is a distortion of memory and involves confabulation, or the type of errors made when someone is attempting to reconstruct the past.
Occurs when recently learned material interferes with the ability to recall material learned in the past.
Occurs when previously learned material interferes with the ability to learn or recall current material.