Psych 10 & 11

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  1. Post Hoc Fallacy
    false assumption that because one event occurred before another event, it must have caused that event (A happens before B, so A must cause B assumption)
  2. Development Psychology
    study of how behavior changes over the lifespan
  3. Cross-Sectional Design
    research design that examines people of different ages at a single point in time
  4. Cohort Effect
    effect observed in a sample of participants that results from individuals in the sample growing up at the same time
  5. Longitudinal Design
    research design that examines development in the same group of people on multiple occasions over time
  6. Gene-Environment Interaction
    situation in which the effects of genes depend on the environment in which they are expressed
  7. Nature vs. Nurture
    tendency of individuals with certain genetic predispositions to seek out and create environments that permit the expression of those predispositions
  8. Gene Expression
    activation or deactivation of genes by environmental experiences throughout development
  9. Teratogen
    an environmental factor that can exert a negative impact on prenatal development
  10. Motor Behavior
    bodily motion that occurs as a result of self-initiated force that moves the bones and muscles
  11. Adolescene
    the transition between childhood and adulthood commonly associated with the teenage years
  12. Primary Sex Characteristics
    a physical feature that distinguishes the sexes
  13. Secondary Sex Characteristics
    a sex-differentiating characteristic that doesn't relate directly to reproduction
  14. Cognitive Development
    study of how children acquire the ability to learn, think, reason, communicate, and remember
  15. Assimilation
    Piagetian process of absorbing new experience into current knowledge structures
  16. Accommodation
    Piagetian process of altering a belief to make it more compatible with experience
  17. Sensorimotor Stage
    stage in Piaget's theory characterized by a focus on the here and now without the ability to represent experiences mentally
  18. Object Permanence
    the understanding that objects continue to exist even when out of view
  19. Preoperational Stage
    stage in Piaget's theory characterized by the ability to construct mental representations of experience but not yet perform operations on them
  20. Egocentrism
    inability to see the world from others' perspectives
  21. Conservation
    Piagetian task requiring children to understand that despite a transformation in the physical presentation of an amount, the amount remains the same
  22. Concrete Operation Stage
    stage in Piaget's theory characterized by the ability to perform mental operations on physical events only
  23. Formal Operations Stage
    stage in Piaget's theory characterized by the ability to perform hypothetical reasoning beyond the here and now
  24. Scaffolding
    Vygotskian learning mechanism in which parents provide initial assistance in children's learning but gradually remove structure as children become more competent
  25. Zone of Proximal Development
    phase of learning during which children can benefit from instruction
  26. Theory of Mind
    ability to reason about what other people know or believe
  27. Temperament
    basic emotional style that appears early in development and is largely genetic in origin
  28. Attachment
    the strong emotional connections we share with those to whom we feel closest
  29. Contact Comfort
    positive emotions afforded by touch
  30. Permissive
    Few rules and lots of affection
  31. Authoritarian
    Many rules and little affection
  32. Democratic
    Some rules and supportive
  33. Uninvolved
    Paying little attention
  34. Average Expectable Environment
    environment that provides children with basic needs for affection and discipline
  35. Self-Control
    ability to inhibit an impulse to act
  36. Gender Role
    a set of behaviors that tend to be associated with being male or female
  37. Gender Identity
    individuals' sense of being male or female
  38. Identity
    our sense of who we are, as well as our life goals and priorities
  39. Psychosocial Crisis
    dilemma concerning an individual's relations to other people
  40. Emerging Adulthood
    period of life between the ages of 18 and 25 when many aspects of emotional development, identity, and personality become solidified
  41. Preconventional Morality
    a focus on punishment and reward
  42. Conventional Morality
    a focus on societal values
  43. Postconventional Morality
    a focus on internal moral principles that may differ from conventional societal values
  44. Emotion
    mental state or feeling associated with our evaluation of our experiences
  45. Discrete Emotions Theory
    theory that humans experience a small number of distinct emotions that are rooted in their biology
  46. Primary Emotions
    small number of emotions believed by some theorists to be cross-culturally universal
  47. 7 Emotions
    Happiness, Sadness, Surprise, Anger, Disgust, Fear, and Contempt
  48. Display Rules
    cross-cultural guidelines for how and when to express emotions
  49. Cognitive Theories of Emotion
    theories proposing that emotions are products of thinking
  50. James-Lange Theory of Emotion
    theory proposing that emotions result from our interpretations of our bodily reactions to stimuli
  51. Somatic Marker Theory
    theory proposing that we use our "gut reactions" to help us determine how we should act
  52. Cannon-Bard Theory
    theory proposing than an emotion-provoking event leads simultaneously to an emotion and to bodily reactions
  53. Two-Factor Theory
    theory proposing that emotions are produced by an undifferentiated state of arousal along with an explanation of that arousal
  54. Mere Exposure Effect
    phenomenon in which repeated exposure to a stimulus makes us more likely to feel favorably toward it
  55. Nonverbal Leakage
    unconscious spillover of emotions into nonverbal behavior
  56. Proxemics
    study of personal space
  57. 4 Types of Distances
    Public, Social, Personal, Intimate
  58. Pinocchio Response
    supposedly perfect physiology or behavioral indicator of lying
  59. Broaden and Build Theory
    theory proposing that happiness predisposes us to think more openly
  60. Positivity Effect
    tendency for people to remember more positive than negative information with age
  61. Positive Illusion
    tendencies to perceive ourselves more favorably than others do
  62. Positive Psychology
    discipline that has sought to emphasize human strengths
  63. Defensive Pessimism
    strategy of anticipating failure and compensating for this expectation by mentally overpreparing for negative outcomes
  64. Motivation
    psychological drives that propel us in a specific direction
  65. Drive Reduction Theory
    theory proposing that certain drives, like hunger, thirst and sexual frustration, motivates us to act in ways that minimize states
  66. Yerkes-Dodson Law
    inverted U-shaped relation between arousal on the one hand and mood and performance on the other
  67. Incentive Theories
    theories proposing that we're often motivated by positive goals
  68. Hierarchy of Needs
    model developed by Maslow proposing that we must satisfy physiological needs and needs for safety and security before progressing to more complex needs
  69. Glucostatic Theory
    theory that when our blood glucose levels drop, hunger creates a drive to eat to restore the proper level of glucose
  70. Leptin
    hormone that signals the hypothalamus (limbic system) and brain stem to reduce appetite and increase the amount of energy used
  71. Set Point
    value that establishes a range of body and muscle mass we tend to maintain
  72. Internal-External Theory
    theory holding that obese people are motivated to eat more by external cues than internal cues
Card Set
Psych 10 & 11
Test 11-15-13
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