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- requires energy
- uses ATP
- goes from Low-> High concentration
Types of transports
what are they doing?
- 1. Endocytosis-going in
- 2. Extocytosis- going out
Processes of Transports (only for endocytosis)
and what are they doing?
- 1. Phagocytosis- Solids go in
- 2. Pinocytosis- liquids go in
- requires NO energy
- Goes from High -> Low Concentration
Facilitated Diffusion and Simple diffusion
Facilitated: Proteins help move larger molecules like glucose across the membrane
Simple Diffusion: Just the movement of molecules across the membrane
3 types of solutions and their meanings:
- hypotonic: more water concentration on the inside
- Hypertonic: more Solute concentration on the inside
- Isotonic: Equal concentration of solvent and solute on the inside and outside
What are the orange parts?
and the purple stick sticking gout of the green?
- lipid bilayers
- Protein channel
- Carbohydrate chain
If a concentration is looking for Passive what are the possible concentration movement it's looking for?
- Passive- Osmosis, Diffusion, Facilitated diffusion
- Active_ Active transport
- Solvent- Osmosis
- Solute- Active, diffusion, facilitated diffusion
equation for finding concentration:
2 reactions in Photosynthesis:
and what they do
- requires light energy from sun
- 1. a photon from the sun slaps into a molecule of chlorophyll
- 2. The molecule gets passed on and an electron absorbs the energy, making it charged and excited.
- Light-independent/calvin cycle-
- 1. Carbon fixation- an RUVP slaps onto a chain of carbon molecules and becomes unstable.
- only way it can stabilize is if it breaks into 3 phosphoglycerate molecules.
- 2. reduction
- 3. Regeneration- starts all over creating oxygen
equation of photosynthesis:
- 6CO2+ 6H2O ------> C6H12O6+ 6O2
Carbon dioxide + Water --(light)--> Sugar + Oxygen
Sugar, water, carbon dioxide, oxygen and light
Plant tissue that absorbs water:
____ absorbs carbon Dioxide and kicks out oxygen.
What stores chlorophyll?
Stacks of thylakoid are called____.
Inside the thylakoid=
outside the thylakoid=
and Photosystem I
- PSII- straddle the membranes of the thylakoids in the chloroplast
- PSI- Electrons get reenergized
What does ATP synthase do?
turns ADP into ATP
equation for cellular respiration:
- 6O2 + C6H12O6 -----> 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy
- Oxygen + Sugar -------------> carbon dioxide + Water + energy
fermentation equations for alcohol and lactic acid:
Pyruvic acid+ NADH ----> alcohol+ CO2+ NAD+
Pyruvic acid + NADH ----> lactic acid + NAD+
Which molecule stores energy and which releases?
what is ATP and ADP composed of?
- ATP- Adenine+ Ribose+ 3 phosphate groups
- ADP- Adenine+ Ribose+ 2 phosphate groups
in cellular respiration- _____ is transformed into ATP with 3 separate stages
- 1. Glycolysis
- 2. Krebs Cycle
- 3. Electron Transport Chain (ETC)
__ ATPs _____ pyruvic acids _____ NADH
into Pyruvic acid
Takes us to the route of fermentation.
what are the 2 types of fermentation?
what they're related to?
- without oxygen
- with oxygen
Alcohol and Lactic acid
- alcohol: yeast
- Lactic acid- when muscles don't get enough oxygen.
Krebs cycle: requires ____.
Grabs ______ _____ and makes __ ATP per glucose plus energy.
- Pyruvate molecules
what Krebs cycle does?
- 1. Pyruvates are oxidized
- one of the carbons of the 3 carbon chain bonds with an oxygen molecule and leaves the cell as CO2
- What's left is a 2 carbon compound called ACETYL COENZYME. Then another NAD+ comes along and picks up a hydrogen and become NADH.
describe NAD+ and FAD:
When they pick up hydrogen, what do they become:
both pick up hydrogens and energize electrons from each pyruvate.
- When they pick up hydrogen, they become:
- NADH and FADH2
Each pyruvate uses _ NADH, _ FADH2 per cycle.
Each glucose uses creates ___ pyruvates --> ___ NADH ---> ___ FADH2
- each glucose composes of 2 pyruvates.
- pyruvates yields 3 NADH groups and 1 FADH2 group.
- so,,,, in glucose there would be 2 pyruvates, 6 NADH and 2 FADH2
how many ATPs does the ELCTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN make?
what does the ETC do?
uses ____ electrons from _______ and NADH to energize protein transporters on the inner ______ membrane.
These electrons are passed on and on through a series of transporters until they ________________________________________________________. Then they bond to a Hydrogen and oxygen to create _____.
energized, FADH2, mitochondrial, run low on energy or they run out of energy, water.