Osmosis/Diffusion/Photosynthesis/Cell transport and cellular respiration

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anitaebrahimi
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246614
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Osmosis/Diffusion/Photosynthesis/Cell transport and cellular respiration
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2013-11-13 13:20:22
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  1. active transport
    • requires energy
    • uses ATP
    • goes from Low-> High concentration
  2. Types of transports
    (2)

    what are they doing?
    • 1. Endocytosis-going in
    • 2. Extocytosis- going out
  3. Processes of Transports (only for endocytosis)
    (2)
    and what are they doing?
    • 1. Phagocytosis- Solids go in
    • 2. Pinocytosis- liquids go in
  4. Passive transport:
    • requires NO energy
    • Goes from High -> Low Concentration
  5. Facilitated Diffusion and Simple diffusion
    Facilitated: Proteins help move larger molecules like glucose across the membrane

    Simple Diffusion: Just the movement of molecules across the membrane
  6. 3 types of solutions and their meanings:
    • hypotonic: more water concentration on the inside
    • Hypertonic: more Solute concentration on the inside
    • Isotonic: Equal concentration of solvent and solute on the inside and outside

  7. What are the orange parts?
    the purple?
    the Green?
    and the purple stick sticking gout of the green?
    • lipid bilayers
    • Protein channel
    • Protein
    • Carbohydrate chain
  8. If a concentration is looking for Passive what are the possible concentration movement it's looking for?
    Active?
    Solvent?
    Solute?
    • Passive- Osmosis, Diffusion, Facilitated diffusion
    • Active_ Active transport
    • Solvent- Osmosis
    • Solute- Active, diffusion, facilitated diffusion
  9. equation for finding concentration:
    mass/volume= concentration
  10. 2 reactions in Photosynthesis:
    and what they do
    • Light-Dependent-
    • requires light energy from sun
    • 1. a photon from the sun slaps into a molecule of chlorophyll
    • 2. The molecule gets passed on and an electron absorbs the energy, making it charged and excited.

    • Light-independent/calvin cycle- 
    •  phases:
    • 1. Carbon fixation- an RUVP slaps onto a chain of carbon molecules and becomes unstable.
    • only way it can stabilize is if it breaks into 3 phosphoglycerate molecules.

    • 2. reduction
    • 3. Regeneration- starts all over creating oxygen
  11. equation of photosynthesis:
    • 6CO2+ 6H2O ------> C6H12O6+ 6O2
    •                     light


    Carbon dioxide + Water --(light)--> Sugar + Oxygen
  12. photosynthesis byproducts:
    Sugar, water, carbon dioxide, oxygen and light
  13. Plant tissue that absorbs water:
    ____ absorbs carbon Dioxide and kicks out oxygen.
    • xylem
    • Stomata
  14. What stores chlorophyll?
    Stacks of thylakoid are called____.
    Inside the thylakoid=
    outside the thylakoid=
    • thylakoid
    • Grana
    • lumen
    • stroma
  15. Photosystem II
    and Photosystem I
    • PSII- straddle the membranes of the thylakoids in the chloroplast
    • PSI- Electrons get reenergized
  16. What does ATP synthase do?
    turns ADP into ATP
  17. equation for cellular respiration:
    • 6O2 + C6H12O6 -----> 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy
    • Oxygen + Sugar ------------->  carbon dioxide + Water + energy
  18. fermentation equations for alcohol and lactic acid:
    Pyruvic acid+ NADH ----> alcohol+ CO2+ NAD+

    Pyruvic acid + NADH ----> lactic acid + NAD+

  19. Which molecule stores energy and which releases?
    • ATP-stores
    • ADP- releases
  20. what is ATP and ADP composed of?
    • ATP- Adenine+ Ribose+ 3 phosphate groups
    • ADP- Adenine+ Ribose+ 2 phosphate groups
  21. in cellular respiration- _____ is transformed into ATP with 3 separate stages
    1.
    2.
    3.
    Glucose

    • 1. Glycolysis
    • 2. Krebs Cycle
    • 3. Electron Transport Chain (ETC)
  22. 1. Glycolysis-

    results in

    __ ATPs   _____ pyruvic acids _____ NADH
    breaks glucose into Pyruvic acid

    • 4
    • 2
    • 2
  23. Anaerobic-
    Aerobic-

    Takes us to the route of fermentation.
    what are the 2 types of fermentation?
    what they're related to?
    • without oxygen
    • with oxygen

    Alcohol and Lactic acid

    • alcohol: yeast
    • Lactic acid- when muscles don't get enough oxygen.
  24. Krebs cycle: requires ____.

    Grabs ______ _____ and makes __ ATP per glucose plus energy.
    • oxygen.
    • Pyruvate molecules
    • 2
  25. what Krebs cycle does?
    • 1. Pyruvates are oxidized
    • one of the carbons of the 3 carbon chain bonds with an oxygen molecule and leaves the cell as CO2
    • What's left is a 2 carbon compound called ACETYL COENZYME.  Then another NAD+ comes along and picks up a hydrogen and become NADH.
  26. describe NAD+ and FAD:

    When they pick up hydrogen, what do they become:
    both pick up hydrogens and energize electrons from each pyruvate.

    • When they pick up hydrogen, they become:
    • NADH and FADH2
  27. Each pyruvate uses _ NADH, _ FADH2 per cycle.

    Each glucose uses creates ___ pyruvates --> ___ NADH ---> ___ FADH2
    • 3
    • 1

    • 2
    • 6
    • 2

  28. Explain
    • each glucose composes of 2 pyruvates.
    • pyruvates yields 3 NADH groups and 1 FADH2 group.
    • so,,,, in glucose there would be 2 pyruvates, 6 NADH and 2 FADH2
  29. how many ATPs does the ELCTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN make?
    34
  30. what does the ETC do?
    uses ____ electrons from _______ and NADH to energize protein transporters on the inner ______ membrane.
    These electrons are passed on and on through a series of transporters until they ________________________________________________________. Then they bond to a Hydrogen and oxygen to create _____.
    energized, FADH2, mitochondrial, run low on energy or they run out of energy, water.

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