Arch 270 Lab Final

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Arch 270 Lab Final
2013-11-21 19:51:19
Arch 270

Lab Final, post midterm
Show Answers:

  1. How Many Bones in Adult Human Body
  2. Diaphysis
    -shaft of long bone
  3. Epiphyses
    -articular ends of long bones
  4. What Bones are Long Bones
    • -clavicle
    • -all arm, leg, hand and foot bones EXCEPT carpals, tarsals and patellae
    • -long bones are made of dense cortical bone with open medullary cavity
  5. What Bones are Short Bones
    • -carpals, tarsals, patellae
    • -made up of cancellous (spongy) bone
  6. Sesamoid Bone
    • -short bones that form in areas of friction over joints
    • -patellae is the largest sesamoid bone
  7. What Bones are Flat Bones
    -bones of the cranial vault, scapulae, ribs, sternum and ilia
  8. Superior Sagittal Sinus
    -inside the cranial vault where the sagittal suture is(directly along the length of the skull)
  9. Grooves for the Transverse Sinuses
    -located where the occipital bone meets the parietal bones
  10. Grooves for the Sigmoid Sinus
    -almost continuous with the transverse sinus, but go up along temporal bone
  11. Sella Turcica
    • -looks like a saddle
    • -located on the sphenoid bone inside the skull
    • -looks like where an X is inside the nasal area of the skull
  12. Coronal Suture
    -suture along the top of the skull from temple to temple
  13. Sagittal Suture
    -runs longways down the skull, from eyebrows to neck
  14. Squamosal Suture
  15. Temporal Lines
    -run along the temporal bones and give muscle attachment points
  16. External Occipital Protuberance
    -bump on back of skull, males more pronounced
  17. 3 Nuchal Lines
    • -3 lines at the back of the head 
    • -highest, then superior, then inferior is lowest
  18. Occipital Condyles
    -sack looking things directly beside foramen magnum
  19. Squamous Portion of Temporal Bone
    -part of temporal bone on the side, rather than the bottom of the skull
  20. Mastoid Process of Temporal Bone
    -bottom part of skull DIRECTLY below ear, muscle attachment point
  21. Tympanic Portion of Temporal Bone
    • -the bottom part of the temporal bone (on the underside of the skull)
    • -just in front of the external auditory meatus
  22. External Auditory Meatus
    -the external hole for the ear
  23. Internal Auditory Meatus(i)
    -hole inside the skull where the ear bones would be
  24. Ethmoid Bone
    -small bone forming the medial back portion of the eye socket
  25. Vomer
    -very bottom bone in the separation of the nasal cavities
  26. Alveolar
    -thickened part of maxilla that has tooth sockets
  27. Orbital Surface
    -smooth triangular portion that forms the bottom part of the eye socket
  28. Incisive Foramen
    -hole in the front part of palate of maxilla
  29. Coronoid Process of the Mandible
    -front upper portion of the jaw for muscle attachment
  30. Mandibular Condyle
    -back upper portion of the jaw, where the jaw hinges
  31. Mental Foramina
    -holes at the front of the mandible
  32. Mandibular Canals
    -holes inside the jaw at the back that connect with the mental foramina
  33. Human Dentition
    • -2123/2123
    • -spatulate incisors 
    • -reduced canines
    • -bicuspid premolars
    • -rounded cusps on molars
  34. Deciduous Dentition
    • -2102/2102
    • -no premolars
  35. Coracoid Process
    • -hooked process on clavicle
    • -goes to the front
  36. Acromion Process
    • -distal back portion of clavicle
    • -extends out over the top of the humerus
  37. Glenoid Fossa
    -socket part of clavicle where the humerus sits
  38. Greater Tubercle
    -lateral muscle attachment point on humerus
  39. Lesser Tubercle
    -towards front and medial head of humerus muscle attachment point
  40. Trochlea
    • -distal part of humerus that interacts with the trochlear notch to form the elbow
    • -medial compared to the capitulum 
    • -goes medial epicondyle, trochlea, capitulum, lateral epicondyle
  41. Capitulum
    • -distal portion of humerus
    • -located laterally to trochlea
    • -goes medial epicondyle, trochlea, capitulum, lateral epicondyle
  42. Epicondyle(s)
    • -medial and lateral portion of distal portion of humerus
    • -goes medial epicondyle, trochlea, capitulum, lateral epicondyle
  43. Olecranon Process
    -part of the ulna that forms the top part of the semilunar(trochlear) notch to form the elbow
  44. Radial Notch
    • -scooped portion of ulna where the radius sits
    • -ulna is medial bone of forearm
  45. Trochlear Notch
    • -portion of the ulna that interacts with the trochlea to form the elbow
    • -has the olecranon process at the top
  46. Styloid Process
    • -part of both radius and ulna that form the outsides of the wrist
    • -ulna has medial styloid
    • -radius has lateral styloid
  47. Bicipital Tubercle
    • -aka radial tuberosity 
    • -just distal to head of radius and on medial side
  48. Carpals
    -8 different wrist bones
  49. Metacarpals
    • -5 on each side
    • -long bones in the hand
  50. Manual Phalanges
    • -finger bones
    • -proximal, intermediate, and distal
    • -14 in total because thumb only has 2
  51. Greater Trochanter
    • -top muscle attachment point on the femur
    • -directed laterally and above lesser trochanter
  52. Lesser Trochanter
    • -located lower than greater trochanter and at the posterior side
    • -face it to the back to side the femur
  53. Linea Aspera
    • -means rough surface
    • -located and runs along the posterior portion of shaft of femur
  54. Condyle(s)
    -the medial and lateral articular distal surfaces of the femur and tibia
  55. Diaphysis
    • -the shaft of a long bone
    • -we learned the femur
  56. Epiphysis
    -head and condyles that fuse to the diaphysis to create the femur as we grow/age
  57. Patella
    • -sesamoid bone
    • -knee cap
    • -formed from friction
  58. Medial Malleolus
    -part of tibia that forms the inside bump of the ankle
  59. Anterior Crest
    -the sharp "edge" of the tibia
  60. Lateral Malleolus
    • -forms lateral side of the ankle "bump"
    • -whatever side the fossa is on when held in front of you, that's what side it is from
  61. Tarsals
    • -long bones of the foot
    • -5 that lead to toes, talus and calcaneus
  62. Calcaneus
    -heel bone
  63. Tarsal
    -ankle bone that interacts between tibia/fibula and calcaneus
  64. Pedal Phalanges
    • -proximal, intermediate and distal portions
    • -14 because big toe only has 2
  65. Superior/Inferior Processes
    • -facets of the vertebrae that allow spine to interact with other vertebrae 
    • -if you can see the facets when holding it, then it is in the correct orientation
  66. How Many Types of Vertebrae are There?
    • -7 cervical(includes atlas and axis)
    • -12 thoracic (have ribs attached)
    • -5 lumbar
    • -5 sacral (fused together)
    • -3 or 4 coccygeal vertebrae (aka coccyx)
  67. How Many Ribs do We Have?
    • -12 on each side
    • -head is where it attaches to spine
    • -tubercle is by head where muscle attaches
  68. Lesser Wings of Sphenoid
    • -can be seen from inside skull as "wings" above sella turcica 
    • -seen from outside it forms the top back part of the orbit
  69. Zygomatic Processes
    • -areas where other bones join the zygomatic bone (can come from temporal bone, or frontal bone)
    • -where zygomatic bone joins maxilla is called the maxillary process
  70. Lambdoid Suture
    • -suture at back of head where the parietal bone is joined to the occipital bone
    • -looks like greek letter lambda
  71. Speno-Occipital Synchrondrosis
    -on bottom of skull where sphenoid bone meets the occipital bone
  72. Hypoglossal Canal
    -holes that run through the condyles of the bottom of the skull by the foramen magnum
  73. Petrous Portion
    -bottom portion of temporal bone
  74. Pterygoid Plates
    -looking at the bottom of the skull by the palate it is the thin looking curved piece
  75. Inferior Nasal Conchae
    -slightly above hole at very bottom part of nasal passage
  76. Horizontal Ramus
    -horizontal portion of mandible
  77. Ascending Rami
    -part of jaw where it starts to go up from horizontal ramus
  78. Postorbital Constriction
    • -pinching of the skull directly behind the orbits
    • -present in later specimens mostly
  79. Sagittal Keel
    • -mostly found in ergaster and heidelbergensis 
    • -thickening of the bone along the sagittal crest
  80. Taurodontism
    -enlarged pulp cavity inside the actual tooth
  81. Occipital Bun
    • -only found on neanderthals 
    • -jutting out at back and bottom of skull
  82. How to side radius
    • -flat portion is anterior and the radius is the lateral bone of the forearm 
    • -look for styloid process and the curve going towards the outside
  83. How to Side the Clavicle
    • -round end towards sternum
    • -smooth part on top
    • -curves out first then back towards shoulder
  84. How to Side Fibula
    -look for the distal fossa, when holding it in front of you whatever side the fossa is on, thats what side the bone is from