Arch 270 Lab Final

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  1. How Many Bones in Adult Human Body
  2. Diaphysis
    -shaft of long bone
  3. Epiphyses
    -articular ends of long bones
  4. What Bones are Long Bones
    • -clavicle
    • -all arm, leg, hand and foot bones EXCEPT carpals, tarsals and patellae
    • -long bones are made of dense cortical bone with open medullary cavity
  5. What Bones are Short Bones
    • -carpals, tarsals, patellae
    • -made up of cancellous (spongy) bone
  6. Sesamoid Bone
    • -short bones that form in areas of friction over joints
    • -patellae is the largest sesamoid bone
  7. What Bones are Flat Bones
    -bones of the cranial vault, scapulae, ribs, sternum and ilia
  8. Superior Sagittal Sinus
    -inside the cranial vault where the sagittal suture is(directly along the length of the skull)
  9. Grooves for the Transverse Sinuses
    -located where the occipital bone meets the parietal bones
  10. Grooves for the Sigmoid Sinus
    -almost continuous with the transverse sinus, but go up along temporal bone
  11. Sella Turcica
    • -looks like a saddle
    • -located on the sphenoid bone inside the skull
    • -looks like where an X is inside the nasal area of the skull
  12. Coronal Suture
    -suture along the top of the skull from temple to temple
  13. Sagittal Suture
    -runs longways down the skull, from eyebrows to neck
  14. Squamosal Suture
    Image Upload 1
  15. Temporal Lines
    -run along the temporal bones and give muscle attachment points
  16. External Occipital Protuberance
    -bump on back of skull, males more pronounced
  17. 3 Nuchal Lines
    • -3 lines at the back of the head 
    • -highest, then superior, then inferior is lowest
  18. Occipital Condyles
    -sack looking things directly beside foramen magnum
  19. Squamous Portion of Temporal Bone
    -part of temporal bone on the side, rather than the bottom of the skull
  20. Mastoid Process of Temporal Bone
    -bottom part of skull DIRECTLY below ear, muscle attachment point
  21. Tympanic Portion of Temporal Bone
    • -the bottom part of the temporal bone (on the underside of the skull)
    • -just in front of the external auditory meatus
  22. External Auditory Meatus
    -the external hole for the ear
  23. Internal Auditory Meatus(i)
    -hole inside the skull where the ear bones would be
  24. Ethmoid Bone
    -small bone forming the medial back portion of the eye socket
  25. Vomer
    -very bottom bone in the separation of the nasal cavities
  26. Alveolar
    -thickened part of maxilla that has tooth sockets
  27. Orbital Surface
    -smooth triangular portion that forms the bottom part of the eye socket
  28. Incisive Foramen
    -hole in the front part of palate of maxilla
  29. Coronoid Process of the Mandible
    -front upper portion of the jaw for muscle attachment
  30. Mandibular Condyle
    -back upper portion of the jaw, where the jaw hinges
  31. Mental Foramina
    -holes at the front of the mandible
  32. Mandibular Canals
    -holes inside the jaw at the back that connect with the mental foramina
  33. Human Dentition
    • -2123/2123
    • -spatulate incisors 
    • -reduced canines
    • -bicuspid premolars
    • -rounded cusps on molars
  34. Deciduous Dentition
    • -2102/2102
    • -no premolars
  35. Coracoid Process
    • -hooked process on clavicle
    • -goes to the front
  36. Acromion Process
    • -distal back portion of clavicle
    • -extends out over the top of the humerus
  37. Glenoid Fossa
    -socket part of clavicle where the humerus sits
  38. Greater Tubercle
    -lateral muscle attachment point on humerus
  39. Lesser Tubercle
    -towards front and medial head of humerus muscle attachment point
  40. Trochlea
    • -distal part of humerus that interacts with the trochlear notch to form the elbow
    • -medial compared to the capitulum 
    • -goes medial epicondyle, trochlea, capitulum, lateral epicondyle
  41. Capitulum
    • -distal portion of humerus
    • -located laterally to trochlea
    • -goes medial epicondyle, trochlea, capitulum, lateral epicondyle
  42. Epicondyle(s)
    • -medial and lateral portion of distal portion of humerus
    • -goes medial epicondyle, trochlea, capitulum, lateral epicondyle
  43. Olecranon Process
    -part of the ulna that forms the top part of the semilunar(trochlear) notch to form the elbow
  44. Radial Notch
    • -scooped portion of ulna where the radius sits
    • -ulna is medial bone of forearm
  45. Trochlear Notch
    • -portion of the ulna that interacts with the trochlea to form the elbow
    • -has the olecranon process at the top
  46. Styloid Process
    • -part of both radius and ulna that form the outsides of the wrist
    • -ulna has medial styloid
    • -radius has lateral styloid
  47. Bicipital Tubercle
    • -aka radial tuberosity 
    • -just distal to head of radius and on medial side
  48. Carpals
    -8 different wrist bones
  49. Metacarpals
    • -5 on each side
    • -long bones in the hand
  50. Manual Phalanges
    • -finger bones
    • -proximal, intermediate, and distal
    • -14 in total because thumb only has 2
  51. Greater Trochanter
    • -top muscle attachment point on the femur
    • -directed laterally and above lesser trochanter
  52. Lesser Trochanter
    • -located lower than greater trochanter and at the posterior side
    • -face it to the back to side the femur
  53. Linea Aspera
    • -means rough surface
    • -located and runs along the posterior portion of shaft of femur
  54. Condyle(s)
    -the medial and lateral articular distal surfaces of the femur and tibia
  55. Diaphysis
    • -the shaft of a long bone
    • -we learned the femur
  56. Epiphysis
    -head and condyles that fuse to the diaphysis to create the femur as we grow/age
  57. Patella
    • -sesamoid bone
    • -knee cap
    • -formed from friction
  58. Medial Malleolus
    -part of tibia that forms the inside bump of the ankle
  59. Anterior Crest
    -the sharp "edge" of the tibia
  60. Lateral Malleolus
    • -forms lateral side of the ankle "bump"
    • -whatever side the fossa is on when held in front of you, that's what side it is from
  61. Tarsals
    • -long bones of the foot
    • -5 that lead to toes, talus and calcaneus
  62. Calcaneus
    -heel bone
  63. Tarsal
    -ankle bone that interacts between tibia/fibula and calcaneus
  64. Pedal Phalanges
    • -proximal, intermediate and distal portions
    • -14 because big toe only has 2
  65. Superior/Inferior Processes
    • -facets of the vertebrae that allow spine to interact with other vertebrae 
    • -if you can see the facets when holding it, then it is in the correct orientation
  66. How Many Types of Vertebrae are There?
    • -7 cervical(includes atlas and axis)
    • -12 thoracic (have ribs attached)
    • -5 lumbar
    • -5 sacral (fused together)
    • -3 or 4 coccygeal vertebrae (aka coccyx)
  67. How Many Ribs do We Have?
    • -12 on each side
    • -head is where it attaches to spine
    • -tubercle is by head where muscle attaches
  68. Lesser Wings of Sphenoid
    • -can be seen from inside skull as "wings" above sella turcica 
    • -seen from outside it forms the top back part of the orbit
  69. Zygomatic Processes
    • -areas where other bones join the zygomatic bone (can come from temporal bone, or frontal bone)
    • -where zygomatic bone joins maxilla is called the maxillary process
  70. Lambdoid Suture
    • -suture at back of head where the parietal bone is joined to the occipital bone
    • -looks like greek letter lambda
  71. Speno-Occipital Synchrondrosis
    -on bottom of skull where sphenoid bone meets the occipital bone
  72. Hypoglossal Canal
    -holes that run through the condyles of the bottom of the skull by the foramen magnum
  73. Petrous Portion
    -bottom portion of temporal bone
  74. Pterygoid Plates
    -looking at the bottom of the skull by the palate it is the thin looking curved piece
  75. Inferior Nasal Conchae
    -slightly above hole at very bottom part of nasal passage
  76. Horizontal Ramus
    -horizontal portion of mandible
  77. Ascending Rami
    -part of jaw where it starts to go up from horizontal ramus
  78. Postorbital Constriction
    • -pinching of the skull directly behind the orbits
    • -present in later specimens mostly
  79. Sagittal Keel
    • -mostly found in ergaster and heidelbergensis 
    • -thickening of the bone along the sagittal crest
  80. Taurodontism
    -enlarged pulp cavity inside the actual tooth
  81. Occipital Bun
    • -only found on neanderthals 
    • -jutting out at back and bottom of skull
  82. How to side radius
    • -flat portion is anterior and the radius is the lateral bone of the forearm 
    • -look for styloid process and the curve going towards the outside
  83. How to Side the Clavicle
    • -round end towards sternum
    • -smooth part on top
    • -curves out first then back towards shoulder
  84. How to Side Fibula
    -look for the distal fossa, when holding it in front of you whatever side the fossa is on, thats what side the bone is from
Card Set
Arch 270 Lab Final
Lab Final, post midterm
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