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Previous name of Guaifenesin
GGE (glycerol guaiacolate ether)
Uses of Guaifenesin
- Skeletal muscle relaxation
- Facilitate intubation
- Ease induction and recovery
T/F Guaifenesin can cause perivascular tissue irritation
What does the common induction combination known as "triple drip" consist of?
Why is it important to premedicate when using Guaifenesin?
It does not have analgesic or anesthetic properties
- no longer used
- tracheal and bronchial mucosal irritation
- prolonged induction and recovery
- post op nausea and vomiting
- flammable, explosive
Isoflurane and sevoflurane are _______ compounds
Mixture of iso/sevo and O2 is delivered to the patient via _____ or _______.
The diffusion rate of halogenated anesthetics is dependent on ________ (alveoli/capillary) and _____________.
- concentration gradient
- lipid solubility
Distrubution of inhalant anesthetic to tissues is dependent on ______ ________.
Depth of anesthesia is dependent on ________ _______ of anesthetic in the brain
Effects of halogenated inhalants:
- dose dependent, reversible depression, hypothermia
- dose dependent ventilation depression
Adverse effects of halogenated inhalants:
- Increased intracranial pressure with head tramua/tumors
- Decrease BP and renal blood flow
- hyppoventilation, CO2 retention, respiratory acidosis
Tendency of an inhalation anesthetic to vaporize to its gaseous state.
T/F: temp can have and effect on the vapor pressure of inhalant anesthetics.
Isoflurane, sevoflurane, desflurane, and halothane are examples of volatile agents and have _____ vapor pressure.
Which inhalation anesthetic is an example of a nonvolatile agent?
Measure of the solubility of an inhalation anesthetic in blood as compared to air
Blood:Gas partition coefficent
agent is more soluble in alveolar gas than in blood at equilibrium.
Low blood:gas partition coefficent
- minimum alveolar concentration
- measure of the potency of a drug
Iso is approved for use in what species?
dogs and horses
Iso induces ______ to ______ muscle relaxation and provides _______ or _____ analgesia after anesthesia.
- adequate to good
- little or no
what inhalation agent has the lowest blood:gas partition coefficent, producing the fastest induction and recovery.
Doxapram is an _______ agent. May be used in neonates after a c-section as a drop on the tounge.
analeptic, stimulates respiration
T/F: Doxapram lowers the seizure threshold
What are some monitoring parameters or vital signs to regulate anesthetic depth?
- Heart rhythm
- Respiratory rate and depth
- MM color
- Pulse strength
Ideally, the patient should be at a depth that provides:
- lack of awareness of pain
avoid the "4 H's"
- present in light anesthesia
- lost in surgical anesthesia
- returns just before regaining consciousness
- often lost in surgical anesthesia
Corneal reflex is most useful in large animal,
present in light to medium, absent in deep or excessive anesthesia
present in light and medium, absent in deep
Other indicators of anesthetic depth
- spontaneous movement
- muscle tone
- eye position
- pupil size
- salivary and lacrimal secretions
Describe stage I of anesthesia:
- voluntary movement, begins to lose consciousness
- increased HR and respiration
- ends with recumbancy
Describe stage II
- excitement stage
- irregular breathing
- vocalization, struggling,paddling
- increased HR and respiration
- pupils dialated
Stage III plane I
- "light surgical anesthesia"
- not suitable for surgery
- eyes rotated ventrally
- ET tube may be passed
- pupils partially constricted
- decreased PLR
Stage III plane 2
- "medium" surgical anesthesia
- optimum depth for sx
- regular and shallow respiration with decreased rate
- BP and HR mildly decreased
- relaxed muscle tone
- pedal and swallowing reflexes absent
- ventromedial eye rotation
- PLR sluggish
Stage III plane 3
- "deep" surgical anesthesia
- low HR and respiration
- reduced pulse strength
- increased CRT
- poor to absent PLR
- central eyeballs
- moderately dialated pupils
- reflexes absent
- very relaxed muscle tone
Stage III plane 4
- "early anesthetic OD"
- too deep
- abdominal breathing
- fully dialated pupils
- marked depression of cardiovascular system
- pale MM's
- flaccid muscle tone
- cessation of respiration
- circulatory collapse
Objectives of surgical anesthesia
- doesn't move
- isn't aware
- doesn't feel pain
- no memory of procedure
HR rhythm, pulse strength, CRT, mm color and BP are indicators of __________
MM color, CRT, hemoglobin saturation, inspired CO2, arterial blood oxygen are indicators of _____________
Respiration, depth, breath sounds, and expired CO2 levels, and arterial CO2 are indicators of ________
Systolic pressure is produced by what?
contraction of the left ventricle
Diastolic pressure is produced by what?
pressure that remains in the arteries when the heart is in the resting phase between contractions
Normal BP in dog or cat
- Systolic: up to 140-160 mmHg
- Diastolic: < 90 mmHg
MAP (mean arterial pressure) < ____ indicates decreased organ perfusion.
What peripheral arteries can be palpated to estimate pulse strength?
MM color is a rough assessment of:
- tissue perfusion
blood gas analyzers can measure:
pulse oximeters measure
- therapy required
In reflective probes, the sensor and light source are located where?
next to each other
movement of gas in and out of the alveoli
oxygen is supplied to and used by the tissues and CO2 is eliminated from the tissues
amount of inhaled air during a breath
Hypoventilation is shallow breathing and can lead to _________, can be reversed by _________ ________
- gentle bagging
Hyperventilation is ________ _______ _______ and can be caused by _________ or ________ ________.
- increased tidal volume
- hypercapnea or surgical stimulation
pause between inspiration and expiration
The two types of capnographs include:
What could be the reason for an elevated baseline reading on a capnogram?
patient is rebreathing CO2 or the sensor is contaminated.
List methods of avoiding hypothermia in an anesthetized patient.
- avoid cold prep, sx rooms
- barrier between patient and table top
- warm fluids
- warm water blanket
- warm air blanket
- warmed fluids for abdominal cavity flush
Vet tech's role in controlling pain consists of:
- pain physiology
- pain associated behaviors
- assessment tools
- analgesic drug pharmacology
- communication with VIC
detection by the nervous system for potential or actual tissue injury, protects the animal from painful or noxious stimuli
- ouch pain
- little/no injury
- follows tissue injury
Pathologic pain classification is based on the mechanisms, can also be based on _______,_______
- inflammatory- post trauma/sx
- origin and severity of pain
Steps in the pain pathway
- transformation of stimuli into sensory electrical signals. stimuli may be thermal, chemical or mechanical
- action potentials by A delta and C fibers
sensory impulses conducted to spinal cord
impulses are either amplified or supressed
impulses are transmitted to the brain
consequences of untreated pain
- peripheral tissue tramua
- production of mediators from damaged cells
- attracts inflammatory cells
- lowers pain threshold of peripheral pain receptors
Physiologic changes caused by pain
- ACTH release
- elevated cortisol, norepi, eip
- decreased insulin, continued wasting
- cardiac arrythmias
- increased myocardial work
"the five freedoms"
- free from:
- hunger and thirst
projecting human emotions onto animals
Physical evidence of pain can include:
- changes in gait or level of activity
- reluctance to lie down or constantly shifing position
- changes in facial expressions, appearence and attitude
Pain assessment tools
- verbal rating
- simple descriptive
- visual analouge