Skeletal system

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Author:
BrieMuthKimball
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246623
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Skeletal system
Updated:
2013-11-19 21:10:28
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Skeletal system
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Holly's class
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  1. what is the name for the outer membrane that covers the surface of the bone
    Periosteum
  2. What is the name for the shaft of a long bone?
    diaphysis
  3. Name for the ends of long bones where the growth plates are
    epiphyses
  4. A hollow tube like structure filled with marrow in long bones
    endosteum
  5. What are the two types of bone
    • Cancellous-spongy bone/inner portion
    • Compact-Outer hard bone
  6. The epiphyseal plate is made of
    cartilage
  7. Where the diaphysis meets the epiphyseal plate is a slight flaring known as
    the metaphysics
  8. ________ enlarge the diameter of the medullary cavity by removing bone from the diaphysis walls.
    Osteoclasts
  9. ___________ from the periosteum produce new bone around the outer circumference
    Osteoblasts
  10. ____________ and ___________ continuously resorb old bone and produce new bone
    Osteoclasts and osteoblasts
  11. What is the term for bone formation?
    Ossification
  12. What is the term for bone destruction?
    resorption
  13. What are the 5 functions of bones?
    • 1. Supporting the body
    • 2. Protecting organs
    • 3. Levers on which muscles act-movement
    • 4. Produce blood cells
    • 5. Stores calcium
  14. An extra vertebrae on an existing one having characteristics of more than one type is termed
    Transitional vertebrae
  15. Failure of the spine to close completely around the spinal cord. Usually the opening is in the posterior of the vertebrae is
    spina bifida
  16. A rare hereditary bone dysplasia in which failure of the resorptive mechanism of calcified cartilage interferes with the normal replacement by mature bone describes
    Osteopetrosis (marble bones)
  17. Osteogenesis imperfecta is also known as
    brittle bone disease
  18. __________ results in a symmetric generalized increase in bone density
    Osteopetrosis
  19. To produce a diagnostic image with osteopetrosis, the radiographer must ________ exposure factors
    increase
  20. A person who suffers repeated fractures has
    osteogenesis imperfecta
  21. Osteogensesis imperfecta may require a ______ in kVp
    decrease
  22. __________ is the most common form of dwarfism; it results from diminished proliferation of cartilage in the growth plate (decreased endochondral bone formation)
    Achondroplasia
  23. ________ results from incomplete acetabulum formation caused by physiologic and mechanical factors
    Hip displasia
  24. What exam is used to visualize hip displasia?
    AP pelvis and bilateral Cleaves (frog-leg) views
  25. ________ is a chronic systemic disease of unknown cause that appears primarily as a non supportive (noninfectious) inflammatory of the small joints of the hands and feet
    Rheumatoid arthritis
  26. _________ almost always begins in the SI joints. Blurring of the articular margins and patchy sclerosis generally progress to narrowing of the joint space and may lead to complete fibrous and bony ankylosis
    Ankylosing spondylitis
  27. Referred to as bamboo spine
    Ankylosing spondylitis
  28. _________ limits mobility and can make the spine prone to fracture
    Ankylosing spolylitis
  29. ____________ is an extremely common generalized disorder characterized by loss of joint cartilage and reactive new bone formation. It tends to effect the weight bearing joints.
    Osteoarthritis (degenerative joint disease)
  30. Narrowing of the joint space, caused by thinning of the articular cartilage, and development of small bony spurs (osteophytes)
    Osteoarthritis
  31. Inflammation of bursae
    Bursitis
  32. The major radiographic manifestation of bursitis is the
    deposition of calcification in adjacent tendons
  33. _______ is an inflammation of the bone and bone marrow caused by a broad spectrum of infections
    Osteomyelitis
  34. On plain X-rays, the earliest evidence of osteomyelitis in a long bone is a
    localized, soft tissue swelling adjacent to the metaphysis
  35. __________ is a generalized or localized deficiency of bone matrix in which the mass of bone per unit volume is decreased in amount but normal in composition
    Osteoporosis
  36. ____________ appears as increased luscency of bone. May require a decrease in kVp
    Osteoporosis
  37. Destruction of bone, followed by a reparative process, results in weakened, deformed, and thickened bony structures that tend to fracture easily describes
    Paget's disease
  38. Paget's disease appears radiographically as a
    cotton ball appearance
  39. _______ is a benign projection of bone with a cartilaginous cap that arises in childhood or the teen years, especially about the knee, out of the epiphyseal plate parallel to the bone
    Osteochondromas
  40. ________ is a true fluid filled cyst with a wall of fibrous tissue, which most often occurs in the proximal humerus or femur at the metaphysis
    Simple bone cyst
  41. Metastatic bone tumors most commonly spread from
    Breast or kidneys
  42. _______ fracture runs at a right angle to the bone
    transverse
  43. _____ fracture runs at a 45* angle to the bone
    Oblique
  44. _________ fracture encircles the shaft from a twisting motion
    spiral
  45. ______ fracture has multiple fragments
    comminuted
  46. This fracture happens when a small fragment of bone is pulled off by a tendon or ligament
    avulsion
  47. Often seen in kids where there is a buckling of the cortex on one side
    Greenstick
  48. Cortex is intact but there is a buckling of the bone describes
    Torus fracture
  49. A fracture wherein a disease process has weakened the bone
    Pathologic
  50. A ______ develops when a bone is healing from a fracture
    Callous
  51. A ________ is when there is a defect in the pars interarticularis (Scotty dog's neck is broken)
    Spondylolysis
  52. If the pars is broken and displaced it is called
    spondylolethesis

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