Chapter 7

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  1. agon/o
    agony, a contest
  2. amputat/o
    to cut through
  3. brach/i
  4. cleid/o
  5. fasci/o
    a band
  6. is/o
  7. muscul/o & my/o
  8. rhabd/o
    • rod
    • ex; rhabdomyoma: tumor of striated muscle tissue
  9. scler/o
    • hardening
    • ex: Myosclerosis: abnormal condition of hardening of muscles
  10. -tome
    • instrument to cut
    • ex: myotome: surgical instrument used to cut muscle
  11. -tomy
    • incision
    • ex: myotomy: surgical incision into a muscle
  12. ten/o
  13. tors/o & tort/i
    • twisted
    • ex: torsion: process of being twisted.
  14. -dynia
  15. -taxia
    • order
    • ex: ataxia: lack of muscular coordination
  16. -kinesia
    • motion
    • ex: bradykinesia: slowness of movement or motion
  17. dys-
    difficult, bad, painfull, abnormal
  18. -plegia
    • stroke, paralysis
    • ex: polyplegia: Paralysis affecting many muscles
  19. sarc
    • flesh
    • ex: Myosarcoma: Malignant tumor derived from muscle tissue
    • ex: sarcolemma: plasma membrane surrounding each striated muscle fiber
  20. -paresis
    • weakness
    • ex: myoparesis: Weakness of slight paralysis of a muscle
  21. -rrhaphy
    • suture
    • ex: myorrhaphy; Surgical suture of a muscle wound
  22. Skeletal Muscle
    Attached to bones. Voluntary; striated muscle.
  23. Muscle Function
    Provides mchanism for movement, produces heat & help maintain posture & stability
  24. Cardiac Muscle
    walls of the heart. Involuntary, unde autonomic control; striated
  25. Smooth/Visceral Muscle
    walls of hollow organs. Involuntary, unstriated
  26. Antagonist
    Counter acts action of another muscle
  27. Agonist / Prime Mover
    Primary muscle in a given movement, produced by contraction
  28. Synergist
    Acts with another muscle to produce and assist movement; anything that stabilizes a joint
  29. Muscle Body
    Main portion, belly of the muscle
  30. Origin
    fixed attachment of the muscle to less mobile bone. Also a tendon.
  31. Insertion
    point of attachment of a muscle to the bone that moves. Also a tendon.
  32. Tendon
    bands of connective tissue which attach muscles to bones
  33. Fibers
    long slender cells
  34. Fascia
    Thin layer of connective tissue covering, supporting and connecting muscles or inner organs of the body
  35. Aponeurosis
    Strong flat sheet of fibrous connective tissue that serves as a tendon to attach muscles to bone or as Fascia to bind muscles together or to other tissues at their origin or insertion
  36. diaphragm
    partition of muscles and membranes that separates the chest cavity and the abs
  37. Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS)
    disorder with chronic, widespread musculoskeletail pain and fatigue.
  38. Isometric
    Pertaining to having equal measure. Increasing tension of muscle while maintaining equal length.
  39. Isotonic
    Pertaining to same tone/tension. EX Holding something and muscle is able to contract/shorten.
  40. Levator
    muscle that raises or elevates a part
  41. muscular dystrophy (MD)
    group of genetic diseases characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of skeletal muscles.
  42. myasthenia gravis (MG)
    chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disease characterized by varying degress of weakness of the skeletal muscles of the body.
  43. -malacia
    • softening
    • ex: myomalacia: softening of muscle tissue
  44. rotator cuff
    group of muscles and their tendons that act to stabilze the shoulder.
  45. -desis
    • binding
    • ex: tenodesis: surgical binding of a tendon
  46. Tetany
    condition characterized by cramps, convulsions, twitch of the muscles and sharp flexion of the wrist and joints; caused by abnormal Ca metabolism
  47. calcuim blood test
    Test performed on serum to determine levels of calcium which is essential for muscular contraction, nerve transmission and blood clotting.
  48. creatine kinase (CK)
    blood test to determine the level of CK, which is increased in necrosis or atrophy of skeletal muscle.
  49. electromyography (EMG)
    test to measure electrical activity across muscle membranes by means of electrodes attached to a neeedle that is inserted into the muscle.Abnormal results can indicate myasthenia gravis, muscular dystrophy ect.
  50. AE
    above elbow
  51. AK
    above knee
  52. BE
    below elbow
  53. BK
    below knee
  54. EMG
  55. FMS
    Fibromyalgia syndrome
  56. FROM
    full range of motion
  57. IM
  58. LOM
    limitation or loss of motion
  59. MD
    muscular dystrophy
  60. MG
    myasthenia gravis
  61. SOB
    shortness of breath
  62. TBW
    total body weight
  63. TJ
    triceps jerk
  64. Sternocleidomastoid
    muscle arising from the sternum and clavicle with its insertion in the mastoid process. Anterior direction. Rotates and laterally flexes neck.
  65. Deltoid
    Anerior/Posterior direction. Raises and rotates arm.
  66. Pectoralis Major
    Anterior direction. Flexes, adducts and rotates arm.
  67. Gluteus maximus
    Posterior direction. Extends and rotates Thigh.
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Chapter 7
2013-11-13 03:18:47
Muscular System

Muscular System, Chapter 7
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