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  1. Where does Glycolysis occur?
    In the cytosol
  2. Where does the Citric Acid Cycle occur?
    mitochondrial matrix
  3. Where does Oxidative Phosphorylation occur?
    The cytosol
  4. What are the three phases of Glycolysis?
    • 1. Energy Investment 
    • 2. Cleavage
    • 3. Energy Liberation
  5. How are the individual processes connected ( glycolysis,breakdown of pyruvate, citric acid cycle, oxidative)?
    Glycolysis breaks down glucose into pyruvate, that goes into the breakdown of pyruvate that produces two acetyl that then go into the citric acid cycle that ten produces FADH that goes into the oxidative station.
  6. What is the net gain of ATP from Glycolysis?
  7. What is the net gain of ATP from the breakdown of pyruvate?
  8. What is the net gain of ATP from the citric acid cycle?
  9. what is the net gain of ATP from oxidative phosphorylation?
  10. What is Chemiosmosis?
    synthase of ATP as a result of pushing H+ across a membrane
  11. What is Fermentation?
    The breakdown of organic molecules without net oxidation
  12. What are the similarities between the cyclic and non-cyclic?
    The both capture energy in the form of ATP, and both require the PS1
  13. What are the differences between the cyclic and non-cyclic?
    Non electron source is water, oxygen is released and the terminal acceptor is NADP+ unlike the cyclic flow.
  14. How are light and dark reactions related?
    The both convert carbon dioxide into energy and glucose.
  15. How are climate changes affecting plants?
    Drier climates and hotter temps prevent plants from preforming photosynthesis
  16. What is the relationship between wavelength and the energy state of photons?
    As wavelength increases, energy of photons decrease.
  17. Why do cells need signals?
    • To respond to their changing environment
    • To communicate with each other
  18. Define Direct intercellular signaling
    Occurs side by side and between gap junctions
  19. Define Contact Dependent Signaling
    Occurs side by side and binds to receptors
  20. Define Autocrine Signaling
    Signaling affect themselves and others (hormones)
  21. Define Paracrine Signaling
    Signals only affect receptors not themselves
  22. Define Endocrine Signaling
    Signals travel long distances that affect target cells
  23. Define Receptor Activation
    Signaling molecule binds to the receptor
  24. Define Signal Transduction
    receptor stimulates a sequence of changes – a signal transduction pathway
  25. Define Cellular Response
    • 1. Enzyme activity 
    • 2.Change of structural Proteins 
    • 3.Change gene expression
  26. What is a Ligand?
    A signaling molecule with high specificity that changes the receptor structure
  27. Define an Enzyme Linked Receptor
    • Extracellular domain binds signal
    • Intracellular domain becomes functional catalyst
    • Most are protein kinases
  28. Define G-protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs)
    • Found in eukaryotes 
    • 7 transmembrane segments 
    • Activated receptor binds to the G protein
  29. Define Ligand Gated ion channels
    • In plant an animals
    • cause ion channels open and ions flow through (tunnel)
  30. What makes up the EMC (Extracellular Matrix)
    Proteins (fibrous) and polysaccharides (gel-like matrix)
  31. What are the primary and secondary walls of plants made of?
  32. Define Anchoring Junctions
    Cell junctions that hold adjacent cells together or attach the EMC.Mechanically Strong
  33. Define Tight Junctions
    Junctions between adjacent cells in a layer that prevent leakage
  34. Define Gap Junctions
    Collection of channels that permit the direct exchange of ions
  35. Define them Middle Lamella
    Polysaccharide that cements together the cell walls
  36. Define Plasmodesmata
    Passageways that can open or close when permitted
  37. Adherins Junctions and Desmosomes are ____-_____?
    Cell to cell junctions
  38. Hemidesmosomes and Focal adhesions are _____ to _____?
    Cell to EMC Junctions
  39. Where does Transcription occur?
    the nucleus
  40. where does translation occur?
    in the cytosol
  41. What is a gene?
    an organized sequence of DNA sequences
  42. what does a splicesome do?
    removes introns
  43. Define capping:
    A guanosine is attached to 5’ end of pre-mRNA
  44. Define a Poly-A Tail:
    100-200 adenine nucleotides added to 3’ end
  45. What is Transcription
    Produces an RNA copy of the DNA (template) strand
  46. What is Translation?
    mRNA is used to make polypeptides, which ultimately become proteins
  47. What is the start codon?
    Methionine- AUG
  48. What are the stop codons?
  49. What are the three sections in the ribosome?
    • A-site-> aminoacyl site
    • P-site->peptidyl site
    • E-site-> exit site
  50. where does the first tRNA dock?
  51. Describe the initiation stage of Translation
    tRNA binds to the start codon in the mRNA
  52. Describe the elongation stage of translation
    Movement or translocation of the ribosome toward the 3’ end of the mRNA by one codon Shifts tRNAs at the P and A sites to the E and P sites
  53. Describe the termination stage of translation
    • 1.Release factor binds to stop codon at A site
    • 2.Bond between polypeptide and tRNA is hydrolyzed to release
    • polypeptide
    • 3.Ribosomal subunits and release factors dissociate
Card Set
chapters 7-12
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