How are the individual processes connected ( glycolysis,breakdown of pyruvate, citric acid cycle, oxidative)?
Glycolysis breaks down glucose into pyruvate, that goes into the breakdown of pyruvate that produces two acetyl that then go into the citric acid cycle that ten produces FADH that goes into the oxidative station.
What is the net gain of ATP from Glycolysis?
What is the net gain of ATP from the breakdown of pyruvate?
What is the net gain of ATP from the citric acid cycle?
what is the net gain of ATP from oxidative phosphorylation?
What is Chemiosmosis?
synthase of ATP as a result of pushing H+ across a membrane
What is Fermentation?
The breakdown of organic molecules without net oxidation
What are the similarities between the cyclic and non-cyclic?
The both capture energy in the form of ATP, and both require the PS1
What are the differences between the cyclic and non-cyclic?
Non electron source is water, oxygen is released and the terminal acceptor is NADP+ unlike the cyclic flow.
How are light and dark reactions related?
The both convert carbon dioxide into energy and glucose.
How are climate changes affecting plants?
Drier climates and hotter temps prevent plants from preforming photosynthesis
What is the relationship between wavelength and the energy state of photons?
As wavelength increases, energy of photons decrease.
Why do cells need signals?
To respond to their changing environment
To communicate with each other
Define Direct intercellular signaling
Occurs side by side and between gap junctions
Define Contact Dependent Signaling
Occurs side by side and binds to receptors
Define Autocrine Signaling
Signaling affect themselves and others (hormones)
Define Paracrine Signaling
Signals only affect receptors not themselves
Define Endocrine Signaling
Signals travel long distances that affect target cells
Define Receptor Activation
Signaling molecule binds to the receptor
Define Signal Transduction
receptor stimulates a sequence of changes – a signal transduction pathway
Define Cellular Response
1. Enzyme activity
2.Change of structural Proteins
3.Change gene expression
What is a Ligand?
A signaling molecule with high specificity that changes the receptor structure
Define an Enzyme Linked Receptor
Extracellular domain binds signal
Intracellular domain becomes functional catalyst
Most are protein kinases
Define G-protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs)
Found in eukaryotes
7 transmembrane segments
Activated receptor binds to the G protein
Define Ligand Gated ion channels
In plant an animals
cause ion channels open and ions flow through (tunnel)
What makes up the EMC (Extracellular Matrix)
Proteins (fibrous) and polysaccharides (gel-like matrix)
What are the primary and secondary walls of plants made of?
Define Anchoring Junctions
Cell junctions that hold adjacent cells together or attach the EMC.Mechanically Strong
Define Tight Junctions
Junctions between adjacent cells in a layer that prevent leakage
Define Gap Junctions
Collection of channels that permit the direct exchange of ions
Define them Middle Lamella
Polysaccharide that cements together the cell walls
Passageways that can open or close when permitted
Adherins Junctions and Desmosomes are ____-_____?
Cell to cell junctions
Hemidesmosomes and Focal adhesions are _____ to _____?
Cell to EMC Junctions
Where does Transcription occur?
where does translation occur?
in the cytosol
What is a gene?
an organized sequence of DNA sequences
what does a splicesome do?
A guanosine is attached to 5’ end of pre-mRNA
Define a Poly-A Tail:
100-200 adenine nucleotides added to 3’ end
What is Transcription
Produces an RNA copy of the DNA (template) strand
What is Translation?
mRNA is used to make polypeptides, which ultimately become proteins
What is the start codon?
What are the stop codons?
UAA, UAG, UGA
What are the three sections in the ribosome?
A-site-> aminoacyl site
E-site-> exit site
where does the first tRNA dock?
Describe the initiation stage of Translation
tRNA binds to the start codon in the mRNA
Describe the elongation stage of translation
Movement or translocation of the ribosome toward the 3’ end of the mRNA by one codon Shifts tRNAs at the P and A sites to the E and P sites
Describe the termination stage of translation
1.Release factor binds to stop codon at A site
2.Bond between polypeptide and tRNA is hydrolyzed to release
3.Ribosomal subunits and release factors dissociate