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retinal arteriovenous malformation?
- multiple dilated tortuos vessels emerging from OD
- 1: abnormal connection between a&v between major a&v
- 2: direct communication bypassing cap
- 3: large avms, large vessels, systemic
Ocular compclications of AVMs?
haem, exudation, aneurysm, occlusion
- congenital AVM
- capillary/cavernous haemgioma
Assoc with AVM?
- CNS: wyburn mason
- facial, intracranial
Prepapillary vascular loops?
- bv project into vit and return to disc
- maybe glial around it
- DDX: persistent hyaloid
Famiilal retinal arteriolar tortuosity?
- tortuous small arterioles
- corkscrew, spiral
- ddx: leukaemia, hypertension, CRVO- big veins
- retinal dysplasia: failure of retina and vit develop
- bi, trisomy 13
- mental retard
- retinal dysplasia
foveal hypoplasia: foveal pit with absence FAZ= poor va