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2013-11-13 07:52:39

oxygenation for anatomy and physiology for the respiratory therapist
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  1. Oxygen is requires at the cellular level to produce energy in the form of ATP, the body's energy molecule in a process known as...
    Oxidative phosphorylation
  2. Cellular energy production begins with..
    The metabolism of glucose
  3. Define glycolysis
    Glucose is converted to two molecules of pyruvic acid. Produces two atp molecules as a result. Does not require oxygenation.
  4. What happens with glucose when oxygen is not present?
    The pyruvic acid molecules are converted to lactic acid along with the production of two more atp. Lactic acid builds up and changes the tissue ans blood ph.
  5. If oxygen is available the pyruvix acid molecules enter what is known as the..
    Krebs cycle
  6. What is the Krebs cycle?
    Produces additional energy in the form of 32-34 additionak atp molecules from a single glucose molecule.
  7. Oxygen is required as an electron transport molecule in this process and is used up
    Aerobic respiration
  8. Involves both gas exchange and transport
  9. Involves the movement of gases across a physiologic barrier
  10. Gases must cross the alveolar-capillary membrane in a process called
    External respiration
  11. At the tissues, gases must cross the capillary-tissue cell membrane and this is referred to as
    Internal respiration
  12. The movement of gas molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration until equilibrium is reached
  13. Individual gas partial pressure differences
    Diffusion gradient
  14. All molecules of all gases move in the same direction due to a total pressure gradient
    Bulk flow
  15. Air moves through the conducting airways by
    Bulk flow
  16. Movement of gas in the respiratory zone is due to
  17. What is ficks law
  18. Diffusion will decrease if what decreases
    Thickness of membrane
  19. Disease processes such as what reduce the surface area for diffusion and effect respiration
  20. Henrys law
    Amount of gas that dissolves in a liquid at a given temp. Is proportional to the p.p. of the gas.
  21. What is the solubility coefficient for oxygen
  22. What is the solubility coefficient for CO2
  23. In a lquid, co2 is how many times more soluble than oxygen?
  24. What diffused faster, co2 or o2?
    O2 bc it is lighter . 32 gmw vs 44gmw for CO2
  25. The more soluble and lighter the gas, the faster/slower it diffuses
  26. CO2 diffuses how many more times than o2?
  27. The amount of gas that diffuses for each mmHg of pressure.
    Diffusion coefficient. Equal to solubility of the gas divided by the square root of the gmw
  28. What is normal venous PO2?
  29. What is normal PAO2?
  30. What is the diffusion gradient from the alveoli to the capillary of the blood?
  31. What is the normal venous CO2
  32. What is the normal PACO2
  33. What is the normal diffusion gradient from the capillary blood to the alveoli
  34. Diffusion time for O2 across tbe a-c membrane is
    .25 sec to reach equilibrium
  35. Normal blood transit time through the pulmonary capillaries is
    .75 sec
  36. What ficks law factors limit O2 diffusion?
    Thickness of membrane,pressure gradient, surface area
  37. In order for oxygen to diffuse from the alveoli into the capillary blood, it must diffuse thru what diffusion path?
    Surfactant layer, alveolar epithelium, alveolar basement membrane, interstitial tissue, basement membrane of capillary endothelium, plasma, erythrocyte membrane
  38. Name 5 abnormal conditions that can increase the diffusion path, decreasing diffusion. Also decrease compliance and result in poor vent. And oxygenation
    Thickening of the alveolar capillary walls, interstitial edema, interstitial fibrosis, alveolar fluid, dilated pulmonary capillaries
  39. Where ventilated alveoli are in contact with perfused capillaries
    Diffusion surface area
  40. The time available for diffusion is determined by
    Blood flow
  41. The Amount of oxygen which can cross the ac membrane is limited by blood flow through the capillary
    Perfusion limited
  42. The movement of o2 across the ac membrane is limited by the membrane itself
    Diffusion limited
  43. Perfusion limited gas flow, does not bind to hb, remains dissolved in plasma, pp rises until equilibrium is reached, when reached diffusion stops
  44. Diffused across membrane rapidly, combines with hg 210x as readily as o2, none remains dissolves in plasma, equilibrium never reached, diffusion continues
  45. What can increase o2 diffusion limitation
    Low cardiac output or anemia
  46. Pathological conditions that can cause diffusion limitation
    Atelectasis, alveolar wall thickening, alveolar consolidation, pulmonary edema, interstitial fibrosis, emphysema
  47. Arterial blood reflects
    Pulmonary gas exchange
  48. Mixed venous blood values reflect
    Tissue gas exchange
  49. Boyles law
    T constant, p inverse with v
  50. Charles law
    P constant, v and t vary directly
  51. Gay-lussacs law
    V constant, p and t vary directly
  52. Daltons law
    Mix of gases, total p equal to sum of pp of each individual gas
  53. Lung gas mix normally consist of
    Oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor
  54. Partial pressure of water vapor is determined by what
    Temperature and relative humidity
  55. What is the normal pp of N2
    573 mmhg at normal barometric pressure
  56. Only the partial pressure of what vary normally in the lungs?
    O2 and CO2
  57. Alveolar air equation
  58. Normal PaCO2 range
    35-45 mmhg
  59. At rest, pulmonary capillary blood removes how much O2? How much CO2 diffuses into the alveoli?
    250ml/min, 200
  60. Deadspace
    Vent without perfusion
  61. Shunt
    Perfusion without vent
  62. What type of blood dumps into the pulmonary vein before it enters the left atria of the heart?
    Brochiak venous blood
  63. Oxygen is carried in the blood in two forms
    Dissolved in the plasma, Bound to hemoglobin
  64. Determines the rate and direction of diffusion in the lungs and body tissues
  65. There are approximately how many hb molecules per rbc?
    280 million
  66. What is a saturated hb molecule
    Hb molecule with 4 oxygen molecules
  67. Each gram of hb can carry how much O2 per 100% saturation?
    1.34 ml
  68. Normal hb for male and female
  69. The total of the amount carried bound to hb and the amount dissolved in plasma. What is the formula?
    Total oxygen content. 1.34*hb*Sao2*pao2*.003
  70. Cvo2 equation
  71. Arterio venous difference equation
    5% volume
  72. Cardiac output from ficks equation
  73. Go2, whole body o2.consumption equation
  74. Do2 tissue oxygenation function equation
    Cao2 * qt or cao2 * co * 10
  75. Oxygen delivery is dependent on what?
    Hb saturstions, hb level, and cardiac output
  76. Oxygen extraction ratio
    O2er = vo2/do2
  77. Svo2 is a measure of what
    Reserve o2 supply

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