Med Terms ch 7

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Med Terms ch 7
2013-11-15 01:13:55
med terms

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  1. ABG
    arterial blood gas
  2. COPD
    chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  3. CPR
    cardiopulmonary resuscitation
  4. CXR
    chest x-ray
  5. PE
    pulmonary embolism
  6. PEFR
    peak expiratory flow rate
  7. PF
    peak flow
  8. PFT
    pulmonary function testing
  9. TB
  10. URI
    upper respiratory infection
  11. adnoid
    lymphatic tissue on the back of the pharynx behind the nose

    pharyngeal tonsil
  12. adenoidectomy
    excision of the adenoids
  13. alveoli
    thin-walled, microscopic air sacs that exchange gases
  14. apnea
    INABILITY to breath
  15. arterial blood gas
    • ABG
    • analysis of arterial blood to determine the adequacy of lung function in the exchange of gases
  16. asthma
    • panting
    • obstructive pulmonary disease caused by spas of the bronchial tubes or by swelling of the mucous membrane 
    • characterized by paroxysmal (sudden, periodic) attacks of wheezing, dyspnea, and cought
  17. atelectasis
    • collapse of lung tissue (aveoli) 
    • atele= imperfect
    • ectasis= expansion/dilation
  18. auscultation
    • to listen
    • physical examination method of listening to the sounds within the body with the aid of the stethoscope
  19. bradypnea
    slow breathing
  20. bronchiectasis
    abnormal dilation of the bronchi with accumulation of mucus
  21. bronchioles
    progressively smaller tubular branches or airways
  22. bronchitis
    inflammation the bronchi
  23. bronchodilator
    drug that dilates the muscle walls of the bronchi
  24. bronchoscopy
    use of a flexible endoscope, called a bronchoscope, to examine the airways
  25. bronchospasm
    constriction of bronchi caused by spasm of the peribronchial smooth muscle
  26. cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
    method of artificial respiration and chest compressions to move oxygenated blood to vital body organs when breathing and the heart have stopped
  27. caseous necrosis
    degenerate and death of tissue with a cheese-like appearance
  28. chest x-ray
    • CXR
    • x-ray imaging of the chest to visualize the lungs
    • directional terms identify the path of the x-ray beam to produce the radiograph
  29. cheyne-strokes respiration
    pattern of breathing characterized by a gradual increase of depth and, sometimes, in rate to a maximum level, followed by a decrease, resulting in apnea
  30. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
    permanent, destructive pulmonary disorder that is a combination of chronic bronchitis and emphysema
  31. cilia
    hair-like processes from the surface of epithelial cells, such as those of the bronchi, to move the mucous cell secretions upward
  32. continuous positive airway pressure therapy
    • CPAP
    • use of a device with a mask that pumps a constant pressurized flow of air through the nasal passages
    • commonly used during sleep to prevent airway closure in sleep apnea
  33. crackles
    • popping sounds heard on auscultation of the lung when air enters diseased airways and alveoli
    • occurs in disorders such as bronchiectasis or atelectasis (ex Rales)
  34. croup
    • creates a FUNNEL-SHAPED ELONGATION of TISSUE causes a distinct "SEAL BARK" cough 
    • aka laryngotracheobronchitis LTB
  35. cyanosis
    bluish coloration of the skin caused by a deficient amount of oxygen in the blood
  36. cystic fibrosis
    • inherited condition of exocrine gland malfunction causing secretion of abnormally thick, viscous (sticky) mucus that obstructs passageways within the body, commonly affecting the lungs and the digestive tract
    • mucus that obstructs the airways lead to infection, inflammation, and damage to lung tissue
  37. diphragm
    muscular partition that separate the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity and that moves upward and downward to aid in respiration
  38. dysphonia
  39. dyspnea
    DIFFICULTY  breathing
  40. emphysema
    • obstructive pulmonary disease characterized byover-expansion  of the alveoli w/ air and destructive changes in their walls, resulting in loos of lung elasticity and gas exchange
    • emphysan = to inflate
  41. endoscopy
    examination inside a body cavity with a flexible endoscope for diagnostic or treatment purposes
  42. endotracheal intubation
    passage of a tube into the trachea via the nose or mouth to open the airway for delivering gas mixtures to the lungs (ex: oxygen, anesthetics, or air)
  43. epiglottis
    a lid like structure that covers the larynx during swallowing to prevent food from entering the airway
  44. epitaxis
  45. expectorant
  46. expectoration
    COUGHING up and SPITTING our of materials from the LUNGS
  47. glottis
    opening between the vocal cords in the larynx
  48. hard palate
    bony anterior (front) portion of the palate
  49. hemoptysis
    • coughing up and spitting out blood that originates in the lungs 
    • ptysis = to spit
  50. HYPERcapnia
    • excessive level of CO2 in the blood
    • capno= smoke
    • carbo= coal
    • hypercarbnia
  51. HYPERventilation
    excessive movement of air into and out of the lungs causing HYPOCAPNIA
  52. HYPOcapnia
    • deficient level of CO2 in the blood
    • hypocarbia
  53. HYPOventilation
    • deficient movement of air into and out of the lungs
    • causes hypercapnia
  54. hypoxemia
    deficient amount of OXYGEN in the blood
  55. laryngitis
    inflammation of the larynx
  56. laryngospasm
    spasm of the laryngeal muscles, causing a constriction
  57. larynx
    • voice box
    • passageway for air moving from the pharynx to the trachea 
    • contains the vocal chords
  58. lobectomy
    removal of a lobe of a lung
  59. lobes
    subdivision of the lung, with 2 on the LEFT and 3 on the RIGHT
  60. lungs
    • 2 spongy organs in the thoracic cavity enclosed by the diaphragm and rib cage
    • responsible for respiration
  61. lung scan
    • 2 part nuclear scan of the lungs to detect abnormalities of ventilation or perfusion  (blood flow) mad
    • 1. after radioactive material is injected in the pts blood
    • 2. as the pt breathes radioactive material into the airways
    • comparison of the 2 scans indicate whether an abnormality exists in the airways or the pulmonary circulation 
    • ex: V/Q scan-ventilation-perfusion scan
  62. mechanical ventilation
    mechanical breathing using ventilator
  63. mediastinum
    partition that separates the thorax into 2 compartments (containing the right and left lungs) and that encloses the heart, esophagus, trachea, and thymus gland
  64. mucous membranes
    thin sheet of tissue that line respiratory passage and secrete mucus, a viscid (sticky) fluid
  65. nose
    • structure that warms, moistens, and filters air as it enters the respiratory tract
    • house the olfactory receptors for the sense of smell
  66. obstructive lung disorder
    condition blocking the flow of air moving out of the lungs
  67. orthopnea
    ability to breathe only in an UPRIGHT position
  68. palate
    • roof of the mouth
    • partition between the oral and nasal cavities
    • divided into the hard and soft palate
  69. parenchyma
    functional tissues of any organ, such as the tissues of the bronchioles, alveoli, ducts, and sacs, that preform respiration
  70. Peak expiratory flow rate
    PEFR measure of the fasted flow of exhaled air after a maximal inspiration
  71. peak flow
    • PF 
    • measure of the fastest flow of exhaled air after a maximal inspiration
  72. percussion
    physical examination method of tapping the body to elicit vibrations and sounds to estimate the size, border, or fluid content of a cavity, such as the chest
  73. pharyngitis
    inflammation of the pharynx
  74. pharynx
    • throat
    • passageway for food to the esophagus and for air to the larynx
  75. pleura
    membranes enclosing the lung (visceral pleura) and lining the thoracic cavity (parietal pleura)
  76. pleural cavity
    potential space btwn the visceral and parietal layers of the pleura
  77. pleural effusion
    accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity
  78. pleurisy and pleuritis
    inflammation of the pleura
  79. pneumoconiosis
    CHRONIC RESTRICTIVE pulmonary disease resulting from PROLONGED INHALATION of FINE DUSTS, such as coal, asbestos, or silicone
  80. pneumocystis pneumonia
    pneumonia caused by the pneumocystis carinii organism, a common opportunistic infection in those who are positive for HIV
  81. pneumonia
    inflammation in the lung resulting from INFECTION BY BACTERIA, VIRUSES, FUNGI, or PARASITES or FROM ASPIRATION of CHEMICALS
  82. pneumothorax
    air in the pleural cavity caused by a puncture of the lung or chest wall
  83. pulmonary edema
    fluid filling the spaces around the alveoli, and eventually, flooding into the alveoli
  84. pulmonary embolism
    occlusion in the pulmonary circulation, most often caused by a blood clot
  85. pulmonary functioning testing (PFT)
    direct and indirect measurement of lung volumes and capacities
  86. pulmonary infiltrate
    density on an x-ray image representing the consolidation of matter within the air spaces of the lungs, usually resulting from an inflammatory process
  87. pulmonary tuberculosis
    • diseased caused b y the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the lungs
    • characterized by the formation of tubercles, inflammation, and necrotizing caseous lesions
  88. rales
    • popping sounds heard on auscultation of the lung when air enters diseased airways and alveoli
    • occurs in disorders such as brochiectasis or atelectasis
    • crackles
  89. restrictive lung disorder
    condition limiting the intake of air into the lungs
  90. rhinorrhea
    • thin, watery discharge from the nose 
    • runny nose
  91. rhonchi
    • HIGH-PITCHED, musical sounds heard on auscultation of the lung as air flows through a narrow airway
    • occurs in disorders such as asthma or emphysema 
    • wheezes
  92. right bronchus and left bronchus
    2 primary airways branching from the area of the carina into the lungs
  93. sinuses
    air-filled spaces in the skull into the nasal cavity
  94. sinusitis
    inflammation of the sinuses
  95. sleep apnea
    periods of breathing cessation (10 sec or more) that occur during sleep, often resulting in soring
  96. soft palate
    muscular posterior (back) portion of the palate
  97. spirometry
    direct measurement of LUNG VOLUME and CAPACITY
  98. sputum
    material expelled from the lungs by coughing
  99. Tachypnea
    fast breathing
  100. thoracentesis
    puncture for aspiration of the chest (pleural cavity)
  101. tonsillectomy
    acute or chronic inflammation of the tonsils
  102. tonsils
    • oval lymphatic tissue on each side of the pharynx that filter air to protect the body from bacterial invasion
    • palatine tonsils
  103. trachea
    • windpipe
    • passageway for air from the larynx during swallowing to prevent flood from entering the airway
  104. tracheostomy
    creation of an opening in the trachea, usually to insert a tube
  105. tracheotomy
    incision into the trachea
  106. upper respiratory infection
    • URI
    • infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract involving the nasal passages, pharynx, and bronchi
  107. uvula
    • small projection hanging from the back middle edge of the soft palate 
    • name for its grape like shape
  108. wheezes
    • musical sounds heard on auscultation of the lung as air flows through a narrowed airway
    • occurs in disorders such as asthma or emphysema
    • ronchi