chem exam 4

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kcarson
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246735
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chem exam 4
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2013-11-13 14:40:42
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chem 4
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  1. _____- solid portion of earth; man only accesses surface
    lithosphere
  2. naturally occurring solid inorganic
    compound

          -
    most metals exist in this form
    mineral
  3. economically useful source of a metal (usually oxides, sulfides, carbonates)
    ore
  4. waste portion of ore
    gangue
  5. science and technology of extracting and preparing them for use

    1.  mining

    2. concentrating ores

    3. reducing metal

    4. refining (purifying)

    5. alloying – metallic material containing 2 or more elements (steel, brass, etc)
    metallurgy
  6. metallic material containing 2 or more elements (steel, brass, etc)
    alloying
  7. d- and f- orbitals

    -       size - Lanthanide contraction

    -       magnetic properties
    transition metals
  8. all electons paired
    diamagnetism
  9. one or more unpaired electrons
    paramagnetism
  10. unpaired electrons interact with neighboring atoms
    ferromagnetism
  11. -       multiple oxidation states

    -       form colored compounds

    -       conductivity (electrical and thermal)

    -       flexibility - malleable and ductile
    general properties
  12. delocalization of electrons (electron sea model)

    band model (from mo theory)
    metallic bonding
  13. contain central metal atom or ion surrounded by ligands
    coordination compounds
  14. electron pair donating species
    ligands
  15. one donor atom
    monodentate
  16. two donor atoms
    bidentate
  17. more than 1 donor atom (form chelate complexes)
    polydentate
  18. number of atoms directly bonded to the metal
    coordination number
  19. related to coordination number; usually linear, square planar, tetrahedral, or octahefral
    geometries
  20. same chemical formula, different arrangement of atoms
    isomers
  21. different bonds
    structural isomers
  22. different bonding atoms
    linkage isomers
  23. different cpd
    coordination isomers
  24. same bonds, different spatial arrangement
    stereoisomers
  25. cis and trans.
    geometric isomers
  26. enantiomers
    optical isomers
  27. ring structures formed by boding of polydentate ligands to a metal. 
    example: myoglobin, hemoglobin, chlorophyll, metalloenzymes
    biological importance of chelates
  28. systematic study of the elements and their compounds
    descriptive chemistry
  29. _____ elements differ in properties due to size; form max of 8 electrons on central atom and form multiple bonds better
    1st row
  30. ___________________:
    O → 49.2%

    Si --> 25.7%   (silicates)
    Al --> 7.00%
    Fe --> 4.71%
    Ca --> 3.39%
    Na --> 2.63%
    K ----> 2.40%
    Mg --> 1.93%
    relative abundance in earth's crust
  31. most abundant elements in living organisms:
    C, H, O, N
  32. most abundant element in universe; 
    3 isotopes (1H, 2H, 3H)
    hydrogen
  33. chemistry of _____:
    lost electron (H+)
    gain electron (H-)
    share electron (covalent bond)
    hydrogen

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