Geography 5

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Geography 5
2013-11-19 20:19:06

Geography 5 Midterm #2
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  1. Population Geography
    -Provides the background concepts and theories
  2. -forecast the size, composition, and distribution of the human population.
  3. Demography
    Statistical study of human population
  4. Why does population geography differ from demography?
    -Because of its concern with spatial analysis

    location, density, pattern, and relationship to the physical environment
  5. Rates (Demographers convert counts to rates)
    • -Record the frequency of occurrence of an event
    • -during a given time frame for a designated population

    Ex: Marriage rate per 1,000 in the US
  6. Cohorts (birth rates, death rates, etc.)
    Population group unified by a specified temporal characteristic

    Ex: Age cohort of 0-4 years
  7. Crude Birth Rate
    Annual number of live births per 1000 population

    Birth rates of less than 18 per thousand are characterized as low

    • Developed countries- 11 is the average
    • Less developed- 25 is the average
  8. Transitional Birth Rates
    Between 18 and 30 per 1,000

    Characteristic of developing countries
  9. Total Fertility Rate
    • -Average number of children born to woman during childbearing years
    • -If she bore children at current year's rate for her age
    • -More accurate than crude birth rate because it does not account for people who cannot reproduce
  10. Replacement level fertility
    -2.1 or 2.3, not 2.0 because you need to account for infant and childhood mortalities

    -Amount of fertility to replace population (higher in low-income, developing countries)
  11. Crude Death Rate (mortality rate)

    Infant Mortality Rate
    -Annual number of deaths per 1,000 people

    Affected by a population's age distribution (elderly have a higher crude death rate)

    Ratio of deaths of infants aged 1 year or under per 1,000 live births
  12. Population Pyramid
    -Means of visualizing and comparing

     -population's age and sex composition
  13. Dependency Ratio
    • -A simple measure of the number of economic dependents
    • -each 100 people in the productive years must support
  14. Rate of Natural Increase
    • -Subtract crude death rate from crude birth rate
    • -Natural-increases due to migration are not included

    Expressed as a percentage
  15. Doubling Time
    -Time it takes for a population to double if the present growth rate remains constant

    -Use the rule of 70: Divide 70 by the growth rate to find doubling time

    Dubious because they are based on assumptions
  16. J-Curve Growth
  17. Demographic Transition Model
    • -Model traces the changing levels of human fertility and mortality
    • -industrialization, health care improvements, urbanization, and changing cultural attitudes regarding childbearing.
  18. Stages of Demographic Transition

    • 1) High birth and high (but fluctuating) death rates, slow population growth
    • 2) Rapid population growth as birthrates outstrip death rates 
    • 3) Birth rates decline as people begin to control family size
    • 4) Very low, nearly equal birth and death rates (aging)
  19. Epidemiological Transition
    -Formerly fatal epidemic diseases

    -Became endemic
  20. Demographic equation
    • -Summarizes the contribution made to regional population change over time
    • -combination of natural change (births minus deaths) and net migration (difference between in-migration and out-migration)
  21. Zero Population Growth
    -Condition for individual countries

  22. Ecumene
    -Permanently inhabited areas of the earth's surface

    Ex: City
  23. Nonecumene

    -Or very sparsely occupied zone

    Ex: Permanent ice caps
  24. Population density
    -Relationship between number of inhabitants and area they occupy
  25. Crude density (arithmetic density)
    -Calculates the number of people per unit area of land

    -Usually within areas of political entity
  26. Physiological Density
    • -Measure of population pressure exerted on agricultural land
    • -Total population divided by arable land area
  27. Agricultural Density
    -Reports number of residents per area of agriculturally productive land

    -Excludes city populations from physiological density population calculation
  28. Overpopulation
    -An environment cannot support its present population
  29. Food Security
    -Having access to safe and nutritious food

    -Meet individual dietary needs with cultural preference
  30. Population Projections

    -future population size, age, and sex composition based on current data.
  31. Thomas Robert Malthus
    -an English clergyman and economist

    -Published essay on population in 1798

    -Nature would enact destructive checks on population

    -Advocated for population control programs
  32. Neo-Malthusians

    Paul Elrich
    Updated Malthus' arguments for the 20th century

    Governmental programs to reduce birth rates (population control)

    Ex: China
  33. Karl Marx
    -Rejected the Malthusian interpretation of poverty

    -Overpopulation was actually the unemployed surplus labor population needed by the capitalist system
  34. Boserup thesis
    -Past agricultural improvements occurred as a result of population pressure

    -In order to feed more people, farmers developed ways to use land/labor more intensively
  35. Julian Simon
    -American Economist

    -Argued that resources do not exist in nature but are created by human ingenuity

    -Human ingenuity-world's ultimate resource base

    Ex: Oil was just a black, gooey substance until humans utilized it
  36. Replacement Level
    • -The level of fertility at which populations replace themselves
    • -2.1
  37. Population (or demographic) momentum
    Number of births will continue to grow even as fertility rates per woman decline
  38. Economic Geography
    -The study of how people earn their living

    -How living systems vary from place to place

    -How economic activities are spatially interrelated and linked
  39. Factors that control the economy
    • Cultural considerations
    • Technology
    • Political Power
    • Supply and Demand
  40. Technology
    • -The totality of tools and methods 
    • -Used by a culture group in producing items essential to its subsistence and comfort
  41. Primary Activities
    -Harvest or extract something from the Earth
  42. Secondary Activities
    -Add value to materials

    -Combine or change them

    Ex: copper smelting, steel making
  43. Tertiary or service activities
    • -Business/labor specializations
    • -Provide services to the primary and
    • secondary sectors

    -Goods and services to businesses and individuals

    Ex: Wholesale, retail trade, health care
  44. Subsistence Economy
    • -Goods and services
    • -Created for the use of producers and kinship groups
    • -Developing nations
    • -The sewing of clothes, hunting of own food
  45. Market (commercial) economy
  46. Planned economies
    • -Communist Economy 
    • -Agencies dispose of goods and services
    • -Price control
  47. Agriculture
    -Growing of crops and the tending of livestock

    -More than 1/3 of the world's land area is used agriculturally
  48. Extensive subsistence agriculture
    -Large areas of land

    -Minimal labor input per hectare
  49. Intensive subsistence agriculture
    -Cultivation of small landholdings

    -Great amounts of labor per hectare
  50. Nomadic Herding
    -Wandering yet controlled movement of livestock

    -Dependent on natural forage

    -Most extensive type of land use system

    -Greatest amount of land area per person sustained
  51. Shifting Cultivation
    -Farmer rotates fields rather than crops

    -Maintains soil productivity
  52. Boserup thesis
    -Population increases necessitate increased inputs of labor and technology

    -Compensate for reductions in the natural yields of swidden farming
  53. Green Revolution
    -Seed and management techniques for intensive agriculture

    -Designed to bring larger harvests from a given area of farmland

    Ex: Plant breeding, GMO plants
  54. von Thunen model
    • -Rings of activity
    • -More perishable commodities close to market
    • -Less perishable commodities farther away
    • -The greater the transportation costs of products, the lower the rent for land
  55. Intensive Commercial Agriculture
    • -Crops
    • -High yield and high market value per unit of land
  56. Truck Farms
    • -Farms that produce a wide range of vegetables and fruits
    • -Found near most medium-size and large cities
  57. Extensive commercial agriculture
    -Large wheat farms and livestock ranching -These are generally farther from the market center)
  58. Plantation Agriculture
    -Introduction of foreign investment, management, and marketing

    -Into an indigenous culture and economy often

    -Often employs nonnative labor force to farm an introduced crop from foreign markets
  59. Gathering industries
    -Harvesting natural resources

    -Can be easily depleted through overpopulation and extinction
  60. Extractive Industries
    -Remove nonrenewable metallic and nonmetallic minerals from Earth's crust

    -Ex: Mining and quarrying
  61. Resources or natural resources
    -Naturally occurring materials

    -Societies perceive them to be useful
  62. Renewable Resources
    -Materials or energy sources

    -Replenished through natural processes

    (sun's energy, wind, water)
  63. Nonrenewable resources
    -Generated in nature so slowly that for all practical purposes, their supply is finite
  64. Tragedy of the commons
    -Problem where resource is available to all

    -Person thinks he or she is best served by exploiting resource to maximum

    -Eventual depletion
  65. Aquaculture
    The breeding of fish in freshwater ponds, lakes, and canals or in fenced-off coastal bays and estuaries or enclosures
  66. Hunter-Gatherer
    • -Preagricultural people
    • - Dependent on the year-round availability of plants and animals

    -Rudimentary stone tools and weapons helped them
  67. Carrying capacity
    the number of persons supportable within a given area
  68. Agricultural Revolution
    • -Nearly everyone in the world would come to obtain their food via agriculture
    • -Rather than hunting and gathering
  69. Neolithic Age innovations
    Spinning, weaving, sailboat
  70. Economic rationality
    • -People make locational locational, production, or purchasing decisions
    • -What is most cost-effective and advantageous
  71. Market equilibrium
    • -Supply equals demand
    • -Satisfies the needs of consumers and the profit motivation of suppliers
  72. Secondary Activities
    Transforming raw materials into usable products

    Ex: Pouring iron and steel, sewing jeans
  73. Spatially fixed costs
    -Relatively unaffected no matter where the industry is located within a regional or national setting

    Ex: Wage rate set by a labor contract
  74. Spatially variable costs
    Show significant differences from place to place
  75. Raw material orientation (examples)
    Meat packing, orange juice concentrate, freezing of food (reduces spoilage)
  76. Market orientation
    -Transportation charges for sending finished goods to market are a relatively high proportion of the total value of the good

    -The tendency of an industry to locate close to its market
  77. Ubiquitous industries
    -Some producers are inseparable from the immediate markets that they serve

    -Widely distributed

    Ex: bakeries, newspapers, dairies
  78. Transportation Modes

    1) Weight reduction
    2) Weight-gaining production
    3) Water Transportation
    4) Multimodal Freight
    1) Designed to minimize transportation costs

    2) Soda, water to the concentrate

    3) Cheapest means of long-distance freight movement

    4) Standardized shipping containers which are tracked by computer
  79. Freight rates

    -Loading, transporting, unloading goods
  80. Terminal Costs

     -Paperwork, loading, packing, and unloading of a shipment

    -Included in freight rates
  81. Over-the-road costs
    -Expenses for movement of commodities that have been loaded
  82. Break-of-bulk points
    -Sites where goods have to be transferred or transshipped

    -From one center to another

    At ports where a ship must be unloaded onto a railcar or truck
  83. least-cost-theory (Alfred Weber's Weberian Analysis)
    -Explains the optimum location of a manufacturing establishment

     -Based on minimizing three basic expenses:

    -Transportation costs, labor costs, and agglomeration costs
  84. Agglomeration
    • -Clustering of productive activities and people
    • -For mutual advantage
  85. Weber's Five Assumptions
    • 1. An area is completely uniform physically, politically, culturally, and technologically. Uniform or isotropic assumption
    • 2. Manufacturing involves a single product to be shipped to a single market in a known location
    • 3. Inputs involve raw materials from more than one known source location
    • 4. Labor is infinitely available but not immobile
    • 5. Transportation routes are not fixed but connect origin and destination by the shortest path; and transport costs directly reflect the weight of items shipped and the distance moved
  86. Substitution Principle
    In many industrial processes it is possible to replace a declining amount of one input with an increase in another or to increase transportation costs while simultaneously reducing land rent
  87. Spatial Margin of Profitability
    The set of points delimiting the area within which an economic activity can be profitably carried out
  88. Satisficing Location
    A less-than-ideal best location, but one providing an acceptable level of utility or satisfaction
  89. Footloose
    A descriptive term applied to manufacturing activities for which the cost of transporting material or product is not important in determining location of production; an industry or firm showing neither market nor material orientation
  90. Agglomeration Economies, or external economy
    The savings to an individual enterprise derived from the locational association with a cluster of other similar economic activities, such as factors or retail stores

    Ex: linkage between firms and savings from worker training programs
  91. Infrastructure
    The basic structure of services, installations, and facilities needed to support industrial, agricultural, or other economic activity, including transportation and communication, along with water, power, and other utilities
  92. Multiplier Effect
    The cumulative processes by which a given change (such as a new plant opening) sets in motion a sequence of further industrial employment and industrial growth
  93. Deglomeration
    The location of industrial or other activities away from established agglomerations in response to growing costs of congestion, competition, and regulation

    Ex: Relocation of firms to nonmetropolitan areas
  94. "Fordism"

    Flexible Manufacturing

    Just-in-time manufacturing

    Flexible Production Systems
    Assembly-line work that breaks the production process into many repetitive, low-skill tasks in order to produce large quantities of identical commodities for mass markets efficiently

    Smaller production runs of a great variety of goods aimed at a smaller market

    Seeks to reduce inventories by purchasing inputs for arrival just in time to use and producing output just in time to sell

    Ability to move from one factory process to another as market demand dictates
  95. Comparative Advantage
    Areas and countries can best improve their economies and living standards through specializations and trade, and each country should concentrate on the production of those items for which it has the greatest relative advantage over other areas and imports all goods
  96. Outsourcing
    Producing abroad parts or products for domestic use or sale
  97. Maquiladoras
    Foreign-owned manufacturing plant located in Mexico for low cost assembly of clothing, electronics, automobiles, and other export products
  98. Offshoring
    The practice of either hiring foreign workers or, commonly, contracting with a foreign third-party service provider to take over and run particular business process or operations, such as call centers or accounting, billing, and similar nonproductive "back office" aspects of manufacturing
  99. new international division of labor
    A spatial rearrangement of production in which developing countries capture more of the world's manufacturing activity while developing countries shift to services

    Ex: China
  100. Transnational Corporations
    Private firms that have established branch operations in foreign nations

    Ex: Wal-Mart
  101. Foreign direct investment (FDI)
    The purchase and construction of factories and other fixed assets by TNCs

    Ex: US companies purchasing factories in Hong Kong, China, Mexico
  102. High-Technology Manufacturing
    Robotics, computers, software
  103. Commodity Chains
    The set of activities involved in the production of a single good or service.

    Ex: For high-tech manufacturing, such as Iphones
  104. Export Processing Zones

    U.S. and Canadian Manufacturing Belt
    An export-orientated manufacturing enterprise located anywhere within a host country that benefits from special investment incentives

    Contains the majority of the urban population of the two countries, their densest and best-developed transportation network, the largest number of their manufacturing establishments, and the preponderance of heavy industry
  105. Deindustrialization
    The declining relative share of manufacturing in a nation's economy

    Has picked up pace in the last two decades due to recessions, etc
  106. Tertiary Activities
    Consist of business and labor specialties and provide services in the primary and secondary sectors, to the general community, and to individuals
  107. Consumer Services
    Performed for individuals for individuals and performed for individuals and include entertainment, tourism, restaurants.
  108. Producer Services
    Performed for corporations

    Ex: Finance, insurance, real estate
  109. Spatial monopoly

    Inelastic demand
    Firms chose locations that give them a measure of spatial monopoly so that they maximize revenues rather than minimizing costs as in Weber's model

    Not sensitive to a change in price
  110. Artifacts

    Energies and technologies different societies use

    Social Organization
  111. Development
    The extent to which the human and natural resources of an area or country have been brought into full productive use
  112. Underdevelopment
    Suggests the possibility or desirability of applying additional capital, labor, or technology to the resource base of an area to permit the present population to improve its material well-being
  113. Gross National Income (GNI)
    The total value of goods and services produced per year at home or abroad by domestically-owned interests within a country, formerly called "gross national product"
  114. Purchasing Power Parity (PPP)
    A measurement of a country's wealth that takes account of what money actually buys in the country, relative to the cost of living
  115. Informal Economy
    Part of a national economy that involves productive labor not subject to formal systems of control or payment

    Ex: Taxation or black market
  116. Food Security
    The provision of sufficient quantities of safe and nutritious food

    Should be a primary goal of development
  117. Brain Drain
    The loss of a developing country's most educated citizens as they emigrate in search of better educational and career opportunities in developed countries
  118. Technology
    The totality of tools and methods used by a culture group to produce items for subsistence and comfort
  119. Technology Gap
    The contrast between the technology available in developed core regions and that present in peripheral areas of underdevelopment
  120. Technology Transfer
    The diffusions to or acquisition by one culture or region of the technology possessed by another, usually more developed, society
  121. Modernization Theory 6 stages
    • 1) Traditional societies are static with low productivity
    • 2) Preconditions for takeoff are established
    • 3) Critical development that lasts 20-30 years
    • 4) Economic output grows faster than population
    • 5) Population achieves consumption levels far above basic needs
    • 6) Information replaces energy as key productive resource
  122. Uneven Spatial Development
    The uneven spatial pattern observed in standards of living and levels of economic development
  123. Core-periphery model
    A model of the spatial structure of an economic system in which underdeveloped or declining peripheral areas are defined with respect to their dependence on a dominating or developed core region
  124. Circular and cumulative causation
    A process through which tendencies for economic growth are self-reinforcing, and it tends to favor major cities over less-developed regions
  125. Trickle-down effects
    Work to diffuse benefits outward from the center in the form of higher prices paid for needed materials or through the dispersion of technology to branch plants or contract suppliers to lower-cost regions of production
  126. Dependence Theory
    A theory that attempts to explain the patterns and processes of economic development by extending the core-periphery model to the international scene
  127. Neocolonialism
    A disparaging reference to economic and political policies by which major developed countries are seen to retain or extend influence over the economies of less developed countries and peoples
  128. Neoliberal Globalization
    Revived the liberal faith in the market mechanism and the private sector by eliminating quotas and tariffs
  129. Remittances
    Flows of money sent home by workers who have left their homes in developing countries to take jobs in developed countries

    Ex: Mexicans working in the US
  130. Gender
    Socially constructed--not biologically based-- distinctions between femininity and masculinity

    Ex: Shaped by religion
  131. Conurbations
    A continuous, extended urban area formed by the growing together of several formerly separate, expanding cities

    Ex: Los Angeles county
  132. Hinterland
    The productive area surrounding a population center
  133. Central Places
    Nodes for the distribution of economic goods and services
  134. Central Place Theory
    Small towns would provide low-order commodities, and cities would provide luxury goods
  135. Urban Influence Zones
    Areas outside a city that are still affected by it

    Ex: TV market network for a sports team
  136. Urban hierarchy
    A ranking of cities based on their size and functional complexity
  137. World cities
    Large urban cities that are command and control points for the global economy

    Ex: London, New York, Tokyo
  138. Rank-size rule
    The population of any given town will be inversely proportional to its rank in the hierarchy; that is, the nth-ranked city will be 1/n the size of the largest city
  139. Primate City
    • -Considerably larger than twice the size of the second largest city
    • -In a country or region
  140. Network City
    • -One of two or more nearby cities 
    • -cooperate by developing transportation links and communications infrastructure joining them
  141. Towns


    Central city
    Smaller in size and have less functional complexity than cities, but they still have a nuclear business concentration

    A functionally specialized segment of a larger urban complex

    The principal core of a larger urban area, separately incorporated and ringed by its dependent suburbs
  142. Urbanized Area
    • -Continuously built-up landscape
    • -defined by building and population densities -with no reference to political boundaries
  143. Metropolitan Area
    • -A large-scale functional entity
    • -discontinuously built up 
    • -operates as an integrated economic whole
  144. Central business district

    -retail stores, officers, and cultural activities are concentrated

    -Building densities are high
  145. Peak land value intersection

    -major mass transit lines converge

    Ex: a train station
  146. Concentric Zone Model

    • -Urban Community
    • -Nested Set of Rings for residential uses  -increasing distances in all directions from the CBD fringe
  147. Sector Model

    • -Shows urban land use
    • -Wedge-shaped sectors
    • -Radiate outward from central business districts along transportation corridors
  148. Peripheral Model

    Inner city surrounded by large metropolitan area
  149. Brownfields
    -Once vibrant districts

    -Left behind as polluted sites
  150. Gentrification
    -Movement into inner portions of American cities

    -Middle and high-income people

    -Completely change social structure
  151. Latin American city model
    A description of land uses in Latin American cities

    wedge-shaped sectors and concentric rings emanating from a central business district.