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  1. Genetics
    the study of heredity and the variation of inherited characteristics.the genetic properties or features of an organism, characteristic,
  2. Gregor Mendel
    • Augustinian monk and botanist whose experiments in breeding garden peas
    • led to his eventual recognition as founder of the science of genetics
  3. Why Pea Plants
    because they reproduce quickly
  4. Heredity
    the passing on of physical or mental characteristics genetically from one generation to another.
  5. traits
    diffrences
  6. gamete
    • a
    • mature haploid male or female germ cell that is able to unite with
    • another of the opposite sex in sexual reproduction to form a zygote.Origin
  7. sperm
    male dna
  8. egg
    where the sperm travels to to create a fetus
  9. pollen
    from plants that are used to reproduce
  10. Hermaphroditic
    • a person or animal having both male and female sex organs or other
    • sexual characteristics, either abnormally or (in the case of some
    • organisms) as the natural condition.
  11. pollenation
    when plants produce pollen
  12. fertilization
    when the egg is creating a fetus
  13. True Breeding
    • A true breeding organism, sometimes also called a pure-bred, is when 2
    • organisms with identical genotypes procreate an organism for the same
    • traits. In other words, to "breed true" happens when two organisms with a
    • particular, inheritable phenotype produce onl
  14. Phenotypes
    he set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment.Origin
  15. Hybrid
    the offspring of two plants or animals of different species or varieties
  16. Filial
    of or due from a son or daughter.
  17. Genes
    what makes humans human determins our charicteristics
  18. Allele
    one of two or more alternative forms of a gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same place on a chromosome.Origin
  19. dominence
    the phenomenon whereby, in an individual containing two allelic forms of a gene, one is expressed to the exclusion of the othe
  20. Recessive
    • relating to or denoting heritable characteristics controlled by
    • genes that are expressed in offspring only when inherited from both
    • parents, i.e., when not masked by a dominant characteristic inherited
    • from one parent.
  21. Law Of Segregation
    • members of a pair of homologous chromosomes separate during the
    • formation of gametes and are distributed to different gametes so that
    • every gamete receives only one member of the pair
  22. Punnett Square
    • The Punnett square is a diagram that is used to predict an outcome of a
    • particular cross or breeding experiment. It is named after Reginald C.
    • Punnett, who devised the approach, and is used by biologists to
    • determine the probability of an offspring's having a particular genotype
  23. Meiosis
    • a type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each
    • with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell, as in the
    • production of gametes and plant spores.
  24. Mendelian Genetics
    Mendelian inheritance was initially derived from the work of Gregor Johann Mendel
  25. Homozygous Dominant
    • Dominance in genetics is a relationship between alleles of a single
    • gene, in which one allele masks the phenotypic expression of another
    • allele at the same gene locus. In the simplest case, where a gene exists
    • in two allelic versions, three combinations of alleles are possible:
    • AA, AB, and BB. ...
  26. Heterozygous
    having dissimilar alleles at corresponding chromosomal loci; "heterozygous for eye color"
  27. Genotype
    the genetic constitution of an individual organism.
  28. Monohybrid Cross
    hybridization using a single trait with two alleles
  29. Phenotype Ratio
    The proportion of possible physical characteristics in the offspring.
  30. Law of Independent Assortment
    each member of a pair of homologous chromosomes separates independently of the members of other pairs so the results are random
  31. Incomplete Dominance
    • Dominance in genetics is a relationship between alleles of a single
    • gene, in which one allele masks the phenotypic expression of another
    • allele at the same gene locus. In the simplest case, where a gene exists
    • in two allelic versions, three combinations of alleles are possible:
    • AA, AB, and BB. .
  32. Codominance
    • In genetics, codominance is a phenomenon in which a single gene has more
    • than one dominant allele. An individual who is heterozygous for two
    • codominant alleles will express the phenotypes associated with both
    • alleles.
    • Codominance and incomplete or semidominance are not the same thing.
  33. Multiple Allelic Inheritance
  34. Polygenic Inheritance
    • Web definitionsQuantitative
    • trait loci are stretches of DNA containing or linked to the genes that
    • underlie a quantitative trait. Mapping regions of the genome that
    • contain genes involved in specifying a quantitative trait is done using
    • molecular tags such as AFLP or, more commonly SNPs
  35. Sex-linked Inheritance
    • Sex linkage is the phenotypic expression of an allele related to the
    • chromosomal sex of the individual. This mode of inheritance is in
    • contrast to the inheritance of traits on autosomal chromosomes, where
    • both sexes have the same probability of inheritance.
  36. Autosomes
    any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome.
  37. Sex Chromosomes
    a chromosome involved with determining the sex of an organism, typically one of two kinds.
  38. Sex-linked Traits
    • Sex linkage is the phenotypic expression of an allele related to the
    • chromosomal sex of the individual. This mode of inheritance is in
    • contrast to the inheritance of traits on autosomal chromosomes, where
    • both sexes have the same probability of inheritance.
  39. Diploid
    containing two complete sets of chromosomes, one from each parent.
  40. Homologous Chromosomes
    • Homologous chromosomes are chromosome pairs of approximately the same
    • length, centromere position, and staining pattern, with genes for the
    • same characteristics at corresponding loci. One homologous chromosome is
    • inherited from the organism's mother; the other from the organism's
    • father
  41. Interphase I
    the resting phase between successive mitotic divisions of a cell, or between the first and second divisions of meiosis.
  42. Prophase I
    • the
    • first stage of cell division, before metaphase, during which the
    • chromosomes become visible as paired chromatids and the nuclear envelope
    • disappears. The first prophase of meiosis includes the reduction
    • division.Origin
  43. tetrad
    a group or set of four.
  44. Crossing Over
    the exchange of genes between homologous chromosomes, resulting in a mixture of parental characteristics in offspring.Translate crossing over to
  45. Metaphase I
    • the
    • second stage of cell division, between prophase and anaphase, during
    • which the chromosomes become attached to the spindle fibers.Translate metaphase toUse over time for: Metaphase
  46. Anaphase I
    • Meiosis is a special type of cell division necessary for sexual
    • reproduction in eukaryotes, such as animals, plants and fungi. The
    • number of sets of chromosomes in the cell undergoing meiosis is reduced
    • to half the original number, typically from two sets to one set.
  47. Prophase II
    • Meiosis is a special type of cell division necessary for sexual
    • reproduction in eukaryotes, such as animals, plants and fungi. The
    • number of sets of chromosomes in the cell undergoing meiosis is reduced
    • to half the original number, typically from two sets to one set
  48. Metaphase II
    • Meiosis is a special type of cell division necessary for sexual
    • reproduction in eukaryotes, such as animals, plants and fungi. The
    • number of sets of chromosomes in the cell undergoing meiosis is reduced
    • to half the original number, typically from two sets to one set.
  49. Anaphase II
    • Meiosis is a special type of cell division necessary for sexual
    • reproduction in eukaryotes, such as animals, plants and fungi. The
    • number of sets of chromosomes in the cell undergoing meiosis is reduced
    • to half the original number, typically from two sets to one set.
  50. Telophase II
    • Meiosis is a special type of cell division necessary for sexual
    • reproduction in eukaryotes, such as animals, plants and fungi. The
    • number of sets of chromosomes in the cell undergoing meiosis is reduced
    • to half the original number, typically from two sets to one set.
  51. Gamete Formation
    • Gametogenesis is a biological process by which diploid or haploid
    • precursor cells undergo cell division and differentiation to form mature
    • haploid gamete
  52. Polar Bodies
    each of the small cells that bud off from an oocyte at the two meiotic divisions and do not develop into ova.
  53. Gene Linkage
    • linkage: (genetics) traits that tend to be inherited together as a
    • consequence of an association between their genes; all of the genes of a
    • given chromosome are linked (where one goes they all go)
  54. Haploid
    having a single set of unpaired chromosomes.
  55. Germ Line Cells
    A gamete is a cell that fuses with another cell during fertilization in organisms that reproduce sexually
  56. Interphase II
    the resting phase between successive mitotic divisions of a cell, or between the first and second divisions of meiosis.
  57. Y-linked Traits
    Genes that are on the Y chromosome, and therefore Y linked because the resultant phenotype is a result of this Y linked gene.
  58. . X-linked Traits
    • (X-linked trait) Sex linkage is the phenotypic expression of an allele
    • related to the chromosomal sex of the individual. This mode of
    • inheritance is in contrast to the inheritance of traits on autosomal
    • chromosomes, where both sexes have the same probability of inheritance

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