Memory psychology

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lovelylee2
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246848
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Memory psychology
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2013-11-14 03:50:50
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memory drugs
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  1. psychoactive drugs
    Any chemical substance that alters the physiological processes behind psychological events
  2. tolerance- diminishing effect
    need more of substance
  3. dispostional/Metabolic Tolerance
    body/ liver increases production of enzymes and metabolizes the drug faster
  4. Pharmacological Tolerance
    Neurons become less sensitive to the presence of the drug and respond slower
  5. Functional Tolerance
    Body adapts to the presence of the drug so function is not impaired as much
  6. Withdrawal
    Discomfort and distress (even death) when not using
  7. 3 most common legal drugs
    Caffeine, Nicotine, and Alcohol
  8. Most common "illicit"
    • Cannabis
    • Inhalants 
    • *gasoline, model glue, paint thinner, compressed air.
  9. 4 classes of drugs
    1. Stimulates, depressants, opiates, and hallucinogens.
  10. Stimulates
    • Increase the activity of the central nervous system 
    • *Coffee, Nocotine, Amphetamine, and Cocaine
  11. Depressants
    • Lower the activity in the CNS
    • *Alcohol, Barbiturates- sleeping pills
  12. Opioids
    • Used to reduce pain, induce relaxed mood 
    • *Herion
  13. Hallucinogens
    • Cause changes in perception, mood alteration 
    • *marijuna
  14. Learning is considered to be 
    *
    *
    *
    • Relatively Permanent change 
    • Knowledge or behavior 
    • Based on experience
  15. Pavlov and Watson
    classic conditioning
  16. Classic Conditioning
    Learning that occurs when a stimuli and response are paired in space and time and become associated with each other
  17. The Unconditioned stimulus (ucs)
    A stimulus that elicits an automatic response
  18. The Unconditioned Response (UCR)
    A response  to the UCS that is unlearned and automatic
  19. Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
    A stimulus that typically elicits no response
  20. The conditioned response (CR)
    The learned response that becomes automatically linked to CS
  21. In nature, there is a normal automatic link of the UCS and the UCR 
    *reflexes 
    pulling away from a hot stove
  22. Important factors in CC 
    *Acquistion- 
    *Extinction-
    • Acquisition- Initial Learning 
    • Extinction- removal of UCS to remove CR
  23. Four important factors in CC
    • 1. Stages 
    • 2. Time 
    • 3. Strength 
    • 4. Exposures
  24. Operant conditioning 
    Credited to B.F. Skinner
    Learning that occurs when an animal/ human makes a change in the environment that has consequences
  25. Positive Reinforcement
    a desirable stimuli that is given after a behavior on order to increase that behavior
  26. Negative Reinforcement
    An aversive stimuli is removed after a given behavior in order to increase that behavior
  27. Negative punishment
    The removal of a desired stimulus after a behavior occurs in order to decrease that behavior
  28. Positive punishment
    the introduction of an aversive stimulus after a behavior occurs in order to decrease that behavior
  29. shecdules
    To increase or decrease a behavior, a reinforcement need not to be given all the time or right after the behavior
  30. Ratio
    Reinforcement based on number of times that desired behavior has occurred.
  31. Continuous
    Reinforcement every time the behavior occurs. Tends to weaken response over time
  32. 3 Stages of memory
    • 1. Sensory memory 
    • 2. Short term memory/ Working memory 
    • 3. Long term memory
  33. Some newer theories define working memory as a separate stage
  34. Types of LTM 
    1. 
    2.
    • 1. Explicit 
    • 2. Implicit
  35. Forgeting- Decay
    over time we simply lose the information
  36. Forgetting: Interference
    1.  
    2.
  37. -Proactive
    -Retroactive
  38. Proactive
    Old information interferes with retrieval of old.
  39. Retroactive
    New memories interfere with retrieval of old.
  40. Moviation
    you can remember if you really want to
  41. Sensory Memory
    extreme short term storage of visual and auditory information.
  42. sensory memory: Iconic
    visual, lasts for up to 1 second
  43. Sensory memory: Ethoic
    Auditory lasts for up to 2 seconds
  44. Short term is memory that is often called "Working memory" 
    *Capacity -7+/- 2 terms 
    *Longevity -20 to 30 seconds
  45. "Chucking" increases capacity
  46. Encoding Specificity
    Tip of the tongue- you can recall the details of the item, but not the item itself
  47. context- Dependent Learning
    forgetting occurs because you are not in the environment the info was learned in
  48. Eyewitness memory is not accurate 
    ____-____% false identification rate in active police investigations
    20-25%
  49. common mistakes
    • Interview mislead 
    • State of mind 
    • Intoxication 
    • Lineup style
  50. Four basic theories for personality
    • 1. Psychoanalytic 
    • 2. Trait 
    • 3. Humanistic 
    • 4. Socio- cognitive
  51. Freud's theory:
    • Unconscious motivations influence personality 
    • *sex
    • *Pleasure seeking 
    • *Aggression
  52. Psychoanalysis (freud) Theory:
    our actions are due to unconscious conflicts between desires and societies rules
  53. Id
    Unconscious psychic energy, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive instincts, operates on the pleasure principle
  54. superego
    Our conscience/ party unconscious, operates on morality principles, sets standards right vs. wrong.
  55. Ego
    • Conscious part of personality 
    • Mediates conflicts between the id and superego 
    • Operates on the reality principle delays gratification of id impulses
  56. Defense Mechanisms
    • Conflicts of id and superego produce anxiety 
    • Defense mechanisms reduce anxiety distorting reality
  57. The big five personality
    • 1. Emotional stability 
    • 2. Extraversion 
    • 3. Openness 
    • 4. Agreeableness 
    • 5. Conscientiousness
  58. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
    The most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests developed to identify emotional disorders
  59. MMPI examples
    • "Nothing in the newspaper interests me except the comics" 
    • "I get angry sometimes"
  60. Humanistic theory: The three selves
    • Self concept 
    • Ideal Self 
    • Real self
  61. Self concept
    • One's perception of oneself "Who am I?" 
    • your idea of who are
  62. ideal self
    the self I would like to be
  63. Real Self
    the way you really are (including the parts you don't acknowledge
  64. social cognitive theory behavior is due to
    • Social influences (other people)
    • Cognitive influences 
    • the choices we make show are personality
  65. Learned helplessness research of
    • Mental health (depression)
    • self- fulfilling prophecy

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