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Essential Government Functions
Services that cannot be contracted out to private sectors
- Law Enforcement (NYPD)
- Fire Protection (FDNY)
- Infrastructure (DDC/DOT)
- Water/Sewer (DEP)
- Sanitation (Dep of Sanitation)
- Emergency Management (OEM)
6 Functions of Government
The Preamble of the Constitution
- 1. To form a more perfect union
- peaceful union2. To establish justice
- judicial system3. To insure domestic tranquility
- military; department of defense4. To provide for the common defense
- law enforcement5. To promote the general welfare
- social services6. To secure the blessings of liberty
- 14th amendment; equal protection clause
Used to decide what is most important and who gets what proportion
Attempt by government to address a public issue by instituting laws, regulations and procedures to resolve problems at hand
Development, implementation and study of government
3 questions for Disciplining Employees
- Did they break rules/laws?
- What is their employment status?
- What kind of discipline can you take?
Long Beach Decision
- Provisional employees are not guaranteed protection.
- Must take an exam, pass it and be taken off an eligible list to be civil servant.
- Only civil servants have a permanent title
The right to be heard
Non- Attainable Goal
A goal that cannot be achieved and impossible to establish an end result to.
- *Eliminating crime
- *Eliminating traffic fatalities
- *Ensuring that every HS student graduates
A goal that can be measured, attained, realistic and timely
- *Installing traffic lights at every intersection
- *Supplying each public school kid with a textbook
- *Having a lifeguard at every pool
State of War
If the social contract involves active conflict.
State of Nature
Natural state of humans
A contract that a child enters with their parent until they are of age. Parent is legally responsible for child
Life, Liberty, and Property
- Rights a person has upon entering social contract.
- Cannot be given away.
When can a non-essential government function become essential?
In a state of emergency
Non-essential Government Functions
A service that can be contracted out
- Parks (Parks Dep)
- Libraries (NYPL)
- Hospitals (HHC)
- Education (DOE)
- Housing (HUD/NYCHA)
Constitutional (Contractual) Rights
- Afforded to you by the Bill of Rights
- Can be temporarily suspended
- Can be gotten back by way of petition to the state
- Right to assembly
- Freedom of Speech
- Right to bear arms
- Protection from unwarranted search & seizures
Humans agree to live together in Harmony for mutual benefit
Acceptance of restrictions of certain liberties
Assumptions of certain duties
Is used to decide what is most importatn and who gets what proportion
The process of systematically relating expenditure of funds to the accomplishment of planned objectives
A review of programs or services to determine what programs or services should be initaited and which should be expanded or curtailed
3. Control Process
Planning- Budget prep with established goals and objectives
Management- Programming of approved goals, resources, staffing & unit's functions
Control Process- Standard operating procedure & audit functions
Performance Based Budget
Budget based upon the relationship between program funding levels & expected results from the program.
Pro: Can improve performance b/c high-performing departments will continue to get funds.
- Con: Fails to answer questions such as "what types of services are best suited for the program?"
Zero Based Budget
Expenses or costs of the prior year are not taken into account. All expenses must be justified.
Pros: Helps identify areas of wasteful expenditures
Con: Can be problematic for deprartment with intangible outputs. Is time consuming
Program Based Budget
A conventional budget that gives detailed costs of every activity or program that is to be carried out
Pros: Simple & detailed; lays out the costs to run a program & what goes into those costs
Con: Can take years to make sure there is sufficient funding available to maintain budget
A technique of economic evaluation which values both cost and benefit in monetary terms.
Necessary when dealing with public funds
Permanent Employee Due Process Rights
- *OATH (Office of Administrative Trial & Hearing)
- Administrative Judge can bring back employee or can decide to terminate
- *Step process (Arbitration/Grievance Process)
- 3 steps allowed
- Only the employee can appeal a decision, not an agency