__ of the blood is in the veins
__ of the blood is in the Heart and lungs
__ of the blood is in the Capillary exchange vessels
__ of the blood is in the Arteries
_______ provide stability of structure within the tissue and allow the rapid transmission of the nerve impulse from one cell to another throughout the tissue.
These are specialized nerve fibers that spread out within the cardiac muscle and help to co-ordinate muscle contraction.
The ____ are also interconnected in the heart to further facilitate the coordination of contraction.
Blood is the major _________ of the body and in the dog and cat accounts for ___ of the body weight.
4 functions of blood
1. carries nutrients, oxygen and water to the tissues whilst removing waste products to the organs responsible for their elimination and excretion
2. responsible for the circulation of hormones and enzymes
3. Distributes body heat from the core to the extremities, thus helping to maintain body temp
4. protects body
______ and _____ help in the fight against infection and invasion, while the clotting mechanism helps to protect against severe hemorrhage, thereby ________.
White blood cells and antibodies;
thereby maintaining homeostasis
The blood helps to protect the body tissues against changes in pH by the _______ of some proteins and mineral salts.
Two components of blood?
2. Corpuscles (cells)
____ is a clear, straw colored fluid that forms approximately half the volume of whole blood, accounting for approximately ___ of the total body weight of an animal.
Plasma is slightly alkaline with a _______ and consists of about ____ water.
ph of approximately 7.4;
What is the difference of the composition between Plasma and interstitial fluid?
Intertitial fluid contains a larger quantity of proteins
Name 5 Constituents of Plasma
1. mineral salts
2. plasma proteins
3. dissolved gases
4. waste products
What are the 3 groups of cells
What can leucocytes be further divided into?
What is another name for granulocytes?
Name the 3 granulocytes?
Name the 2 Agranulocytes?
RBCs have no ___.
What 2 species' rbcs do have nuclei?
Function is to transport oxygen from the lungs to the tissues of the body and to carry carbon dioxide back to the lungs.
Rbcs are able to transport oxygen and CO2 due to the protein called ______, which has a high affinity for oxygen.
In the lungs, the oxygen in the inspired air combines with the haemoglobin in the erythrocyte to form a compound called ____.
This is bright red in color and it is this compound that gives the characteristic bright red color to arterial blood.
______ blood appears as dull red color when compared to the bright red color of the ______ form.
The efficiency of oxygen transport is directly dependent upon the number of circulating _____ in the circulation and the amount of ______ that each cell contains.
RBC's made in the ______ are active in the circulation for approximately ____ days, following which they are broken down, primarily by the ____.
Bone marrow; 120; spleen
What 2 places besides the spleen are involved in the breakdown of erythrocytes?
2. bone marrow
___ from the breakdown process is stored in the ___ for reuse and the remaining components are converted into bile pigments and excreted in the feces.
How long do Rbcs remain active in circulation for hamsters?
What are the smallest of the blood cells, they appear as non-nucleated fragments of variable shape on a blood film.
Their primary function is to assist with haemostasis (blood clotting)
largest cells found in the blood; they are less numerous
The term ______ reflects the shape of the nucleus, which has several lobes.
This group of cells is the most numerous among the leucocytes, forming approximately ___ of the total white cell count.
_______ are the most numerous of the granulocytes and are difficult to stain by either ____ or ____ dyes.
Neutrophils; acidic or alkaline
In Neutrophils, the nucleus and granules within the cytoplasm appear ____. The nucleus is dense and segmented into up to ______ that resemble beads on a string.
purple; 5 lobes
The granular appearance of the cytoplasm is due to the presence of small ____ containing ___________.
lysosomes; lysosomal enzymes
The neutrophil cells ingest particles such as bacteria and cell debris by the process known as _______.
_____ are capable of squeezing out through capillary walls which is called ____ and accumulate rapidly where there is a source of _____.
Neutrophils; diapedesis; infection
Most neutrophils only last in circulation for approximately _____. This time may be reduced if the cell is active at an ____ site.
12 hours; infected
Eosinophils are only stained with _____ dyes, the granules within the cytoplasm appear __ and the nucleus ___.
acid based; red; purple
Eosinophils make up approximately ____ of the total white blood cell population.
Eosinophils have more of a _____ nucleus and strong staining granules in the cytoplasm.
Eosinophils increase in response to a _____ infection or ____ attack.
______ are the least common of the granulocytes and are stained by _____ dyes. The nucleus stains ____ whereas the granules stain ____.
Basophils; Alkaline; Purple; Blue
Basophils make up approximately ___ of the total white blood cell count.
Basophils manufacture ____ and ___ which they release at the site of injury to promote _____.
Histamine and Heparine; Inflammation
Inflammation causes an increase in the supply of blood to the tissue, which results in an improved supply of ____, ____, and _____ and also facilitates the removal of ____ and ____ products, and promotes ________ at the injury site.
oxygen, nutrients and neutrophils; toxins and waste; tissue regeneration
where are Lymphocytes produced
1. lymph nodes
4. lymphatic tissues
Lymphocytes make up approximately _____ of the total white blood cell count.
WHat can B- lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes not be distinguished by?
a light microscope
B lymphocytes are associated with the production of _____ that attack specific ____ that may enter the body.
An immune response based on the production of antibodies is also known as ________.
T-Lymphocytes are associated with the _____ response to invading cells and tissues. THis is known as _______
defense; cellular immunity
T-lymphocytes attack and destroy the invading cells directly. What kind of immunity is this?
Cell mediated immunity
_____ are the largest of the leucocytes representing approximately __ of the total white blood cell population.
Monocytes have a large nucleus that can vary in shape, sometimes resembling that of a _______.
Monocytes are phagocytic and enter the tissue at the site of injury to engulf foreign objects that are too ___ for neutrophils. While doing this they release chemicals that attract neutrophils and monocytes to the site to help.
Monocytes in the tissues
monocytes in the liver
monocytes in the CNS
the term given to the production of blood cells.
Haemopoiesis aka haematopoiesis
All blood cells originate from one cell in the _____.
Erythropoiesis occurs in the red bone marrow of ______ and ____ bone. It can also occur where there is red bone marrow, including flat bones.
cancellous and compact
The development process of Erythropoiesis requires what 6 things? If any of these are missing, symptoms of ____ may occur.
1. AMino acids
2. Vitamin C
3. Vitamin B6
4. Vitamin B12
6. folic acid
The process of erythropoiesis is affected by several hormones like: ____, _____, and ______. however the major hormone effecting erythropoiesis is ______ which is produced by the _____.
Thyroxine, testosterone, and growth hormone; Erythropoietin; kidneys
Erythropoietin is produced by the ____ in response to a fall in the circulating levels of oxygen in the blood (___).
_____stimulates the rate of cell division within the erythroblast and in the stem cells that produce the erythroblast, as well as speeding up the rate of red blood cell maturation by increasing the rate of synthesis of _____
Another name for thrombopoiesis
formation of thrombocytes
Thrombopoiesis occurs in the _____ from large cells called ______.
bone marrow; megakaryocytes
The _____ shed small portions of cytoplasm enclosed in cell membrane. These are the ____ that enter circulation.
The rate of thrombopoiesis is controlled by a peptide hormone called ______, which is secreted by the _____ and stimulates the production of _______.
thrombopoietin; kidneys; megakaryocytes
________, or the production of leucocytes also occurs within the bone marrow.
_______ or myeloid stem cells as they are sometimes called differentiate to produce all the different types of leucocytes except _______.
Progenitor cells; lymphocytes
All of those that develop from the ______ cells complete their development within the ________, with the exception of _____.
Progenitor; bone marrow; monocytes
______ enter circulation and complete their development once they enter the body tissues.
Lymphopoiesis occurs primarily within the lymphoid tissue of the ____, ____, ____, and _______.
spleen, thymus, liver and lymph nodes
In the immature animal, the thymus produces hormones known as _____ that assist in maintaining the required namber of _____. In the adult animal, their production is related to the animals exposure to ____.
thymosins; T-lymphocytes; antigens
The initial phase of Haemostasis is triggered when a ______.
blood vessel is damaged
(Haemostasis) The ______ lining the vessels become "sticky" and platelets adhere to their surface and to each other, eventually forming a "______" at the damaged site which may cover the site completely if the damage is minor. Usually occurs within __ sec.
endothelial cells; platelet plug; 15 sec
(haemostasis) when the platelets adhere and aggregate, they start to change shape and release various substances, including Ca, that promote the aggregation of further platelets. In addition to the substances released by the platelets, the damaged tissues releases a _____. This combines with the calcium ions and clotting factor present in the blood to produce tissue _______.
tissue factor; thromboplastin
(haemostasis) When thromboplastin from either mentioned source enters the plasma, an enzyme called ______ (or______ or ______) is formed which converts ______ into ____.
prothrombinase (or thrombokinase or thromboplastin) ; prothrombin; thrombin
(haemostasis) _____ then converts the plasma protein _____ into insoluble strands of ___ and it is this that forms a mesh like structure across the wound. Blood cells become trapped in the mesh of fibers and a blood clot is formed.
Thrombin; fibrinogen; fibrin
(haemostasis) Calcium ions are required for the formation of ______ and vitamin K is required for 4 clotting factors including ______.
(haemostasis) At this stage a clear, colorless fluid may be seen. This is known as ____ and is formed from ___ but does not contain clotting factors.
______ is the process whereby the clot gradually dissolves as the wound heals.
The fibrin that formed the clot is broken down by an enzyme called _______. This is produced from _____, the inactive form that circulates within the plasma and body fluids
plasmin or fibrinase; plasminogen
Plasminogen activators are produced by ______ locally and also by the body tissues.