RNA Viruses

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ucstudent01
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246961
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RNA Viruses
Updated:
2013-11-15 16:44:25
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RNA Viruses
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RNA Viruses
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  1. Arenaviruses

    Single or Double Stranded
    Shape
    biosafety level
    • ssRNA, enveloped
    • helical capsid
    • 4
  2. Diseases associated with Arenaviruses
    Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus

    • Lassa fever - Africa
    • Junin & Machupo - S. America

    Rodent resoervoir >50% mortality
  3. Bunyaviruses

    Single or Double
    Shape
    Test to identify
    • ssRNA, enveloped
    • helical capsid 

    Serology (not isolated in lab)
  4. Disease associated with Bunyaviruses
    • LaCrosse encepalitis
    •         mouse host, mosquito vector

    • Hantaviruses
    •         mouse host, respiratory inf.
  5. *Caliciviruses

    Single or Double
    Shape
    cultavatable
    • ssRNA, non-enveloped
    • Icosahedral symmetry
    • noncultivatable
  6. Disease associated with calicivirus & family?
    • Family Caliciviridae:
    • Sapporo
    • Norovirus

    *Large number of outbreaks on cruise ships*
  7. *Coronaviruses

    Single or Double
    Shape
    Growth/ cultavatable?
    • ssRNA, enveloped
    • pleomorphic/sherical capsid
    • Large club-shaped spikes on surface give "corona" effect

    Grows in cell culture
  8. Disease associated with coronavirus?
    15% cold like illness

    SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome)
  9. * Filoviruses

    Strand
    Shape
    BSL?
    • ssRNA
    • Helical symmetry, long & slender

    BSL 4
  10. Disease associated with Filovirus
    • Marburg & Ebola 
    •    ~Monkey reservoir but transmitted to humans.

    • >80% mortality
    • Pan organ effects
    • contact with blood
  11. Flaviviruses

    Strand
    Shape
    Cultavatable?
    • ssRNA, enveloped
    • Icosadedra symetry

    Not isolated by culutre (serology)
  12. Diseases associated with Flavivirus
    • West Nile 
    • Yellow fever
    • Dengue
    • St. Louis encephalitis
    • Hep C
  13. Hep C testing methods
    • EIA
    • Reba test
    • western blot

    Molecular assays
  14. Orthomyxoviruses

    Strand
    Segments
    Shape
    • ssRNA - 8 segments
    • ~Genome consists of 8 segments for flu A or B
    • and 7 segs in flu C
    • Helical symmetry capsid, enveloped
    • pleomorphic & long
  15. Where does replication occur in Orthomyxoviruses?
    Cytoplasm
  16. Disease associated with Orthomyxoviruses?
    Influenza A, B, & C

    • * 2 improtant surface Ag's
    • 1) Neuraminidase
    • 2) Hemagglutinin

    • Pandemic 1918
    • Avian & Swine flu
  17. Influenza Segmented genomes - heavy reassortment are:
    Antigenic shift - LARGE

    Antigenic drift - small

    3 groups can reassort with human (A,B,C)
  18. Key culture info for Influenza
    Subtle CPE

    Hemadsorption
  19. Paramyxoviruses

    Strand
    Shape
    Replication where?
    • Only ONE long ssRNA genome
    •   ~ No reassortment

    Helical and enveloped
  20. 5 genera & Diseases associated with paramyxoviruses?
    Measles: Morbillivirus* (most contagious)

    Mumps: Rublavirus

    Respirovirus: Parainfluenza

    RSV: Pneumovirus

    APV: Metpneumovirus
  21. Parainfluenza: 

    How many antigenic types?
    Symptoms
    Specimen
    Identification test
    • 4 antigenic types
    • Respiratory
    • Throat or nasal secretions
    • Can Culture
    • *Hemadsorption for ident.
  22. Measles

    How many types
    Symptoms
    Specimen
    Ident tests
    • 1 Serological type
    • Maculopapular rash, rever, respiratory ds.
    • Can culture
    • Hemadorption for ident.
  23. Mumps

    Symptoms
    Specimen
    Ident Tests
    Infects parotid salivary glands, testis, ovaries, or kidneys

    Throat swab or Urine

    Hemadsorption for Ident
  24. RSV (Respiratory syncytial virus)

    Disease/symptoms
    Specimen
    Ident tests
    • Bronchiolitis, pneumonia in infants
    • Labile virus (difficult to transport)
    • Produces typical CPE
    • Monoclonal antibody to confirm
    • *rapid test
  25. Metapneumovirus

    Disease/symptoms
    Ident Tests
    • Acute respiratory tract inf.
    • Annual epidemic in winter & spring

    2 distinct hMPV groups with subgroups

    PCR  for diagnosis
  26. Picornaviruses

    Strand
    Size
    Shpae
    Replication
    • ssRNA
    • Very Small ~ 27nm
    • No envelope
    • Icosahedral symmetry
    • Replicate in cytoplasm
  27. Disease assocations with Picornavirus
    Enterovirus

    Rhinoviruses

    Hep A
  28. Enterviruses (virus caused by picornavirus)

    Disease & 5 types are?
    Fecal oral transmission:

    • 1) polio - 3 types
    • 2) Coxsackie - A-24 types
    • 3) Coxsackie - B-6 types
    • 4) Echo - 34 types
    • 5) Hand/Foot Mouth
  29. Rhinoviruses ( (virus caused by picornavirus)

    Disease 
    Growth requirement
    • Most common agent of *Common Cold* 
    • Can culture
    • ~ acid sensitive
    • limited to URT

    Limited Growth at 37C
  30. Hep A  (virus caused by picornavirus)

    Disease 
    Ident test
    • 25% of hepatitis
    • No Growth

    Serology*
  31. Reovirus:

    Strand
    Size
    Shape
    Replication
    • dsRNA
    • 60-80nm
    • Non-enveloped
    • icosahedral
    • Replicates in cytoplasm
  32. Disease & Ident associated with Reovirus
    Rotavirus

    ELISA
  33. Retroviruses

    Strand
    Shape
    They all have what?
    • ssRNA (may have 2 copies
    • Enveloped
    • Icosohedral
    • all have reverse transcriptase
    • ***DNA made from RNA*
  34. Disease associated with retrovirus
    • HIV 1 & 2 ( 1 or 2 copies of ssRNA
    • HTLV 1 & 2
  35. HIV (caused by retrovirus)

    size
    shape 
    types
    • 100-400nm
    • Cylindrical or conical core
    • type 1 - clade (B in USA)
    • type 2 - mainly in Africa
  36. HIV infection & iIDENT
    • Infects CD4
    • ~ lyphs, macrophage, brian cells, & dendritic

    ELISA & WESTERN BLOT
  37. Rhabdoviruses

    Strand
    Shape
    Riplication
    • ssRNA
    • Enveloped
    • Bullet shaped
    • Replicates in cytoplasm
  38. Disease associated with Rhabdoviruses
    Rabies -

    Vesicular stomatis virus of horses
  39. Rabies (caused by Rhabdovirus)

    Disease
    Test
    Encephalitis / CNS affected

    iosolated from brain 

    Dx: Immunofluorescence of brain tissue
  40. Togavirus

    Strand
    Shape
    2 genera & known disease
    • ssRNA
    • Enveloped
    • Icosadedral

    • Genus:
    • Alpavirus
    • Rubivirus: Rubella
  41. Arbovirus (togavirus)

    reservior, vector

    symptoms
    Bird - r

    Mosquito - v

    encephalitis
  42. Rubella (togavirus)

    Transmission, disease, dx
    • droplets
    • congenital

    serology

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