Cranial Nerves

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Cranial Nerves
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2013-11-14 22:26:53
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Cranial nerves
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Lecture 19 - Cranial Nerves - 11/13/13
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  1. What are the different nerve fiber types?
    • General Somatic Afferent (GSA) - send sensory signals from skeletal muscles and skin to the brain
    • General Visceral Afferent (GVA) - sends sensory signals from viscera to the brain
    • Special Afferent (SA) - sends special sensory signals - sight, taste, hearing, balance, smell
    • General Somatic Efferent (GSE) - motor impulses to skeletal muscles from the brain
    • General Visceral Efferent (GVE) - motor impulses to the viscera from the brain
    • Special Visceral Efferent (BE) - motor fibers to muscle derived from the pharyngeal arches
  2. Which cranial nerves innervate structures outside of the head and neck?
    • Vagus nerve
    • Accessory nerve
  3. Trace the path of the olfactory nerve
    Olfactory nerve: nasal mucosa/ cribiform plate / olfactory bulb / frontal and temporal lobes
  4. What Fiber type does CN 1 carry?
    CN 1 (olfactory nerve) carries only special afferent fibers (SA)
  5. Trace the path of the optic nerve
    Optic nerve: ganglion cells in the retina / optic canal of the sphenoid / Thalamus
  6. Which cranial nerves DO NOT pass through the thalamus
    • Olfcatory nerve (CN1)
    • Optic nerve (CN2)
  7. What Fiber type(s) does CN 2 carry?
    CN 2 (Optic nerve) only carries special afferent fibers (SA)
  8. What fiber type(s) does CN 3 carry? What structures do they innervate?
    • General somatic efferent (GSE): levator pappebrae superioris, superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique
    • General visceral efferent (GVE): ciliary ganglion (sphincter papillae muscles, ciliary muscles)
  9. The oculomotor motor nerve leaves the brain through what foramen?
    Superior orbital fissure
  10. Trace the path of the Trochlear nerve
    Trochlear nerve: brainstem / superior orbital fissure / superior oblique
  11. What fiber type(s) does the Trochlear nerve carry? And what structure(s) does it innervate?
    General somatic efferent (GSE) superior oblique muscle
  12. What are the 3 main branches of the Trigeminal nerve?
    • Opthalmic nerve (V1)
    • Maxillary nerve (V2)
    • Mandibular nerve (V3)
  13. Describe the path of the trigeminal nerve up to its main divisions
    Trigeminal nerve: Pons / Trigeminal sensory root / Trigeminal ganglion / Opthalmic, Maxillary, Mandibular
  14. What are the 5 divisions of the Opthalmic nerves and what structures do they innervate?
    • Supra-orbital nerve - eyelids, forehead scalp
    • Supratrochlear nerve - eyelids, forehead, scalp
    • Infratrochlear nerve - skin around eyes, nose, eyelids
    • External Nasal nerve - nose
    • Lacrimal nerve - skin around eyes, eyelids, lacrimal gland

    All of these nerves carry only GSA
  15. What are the 5 divisions of the Maxillary nerve and what structures do they innervate?
    • Zygomaticotemporal nerve - region of the temple
    • Zygomaticofacial nerve - medial zygomatic bone
    • Infraorbital nerve - central face, upper teeth

    These nerves carry GSA fibers
  16. What structures branch DIRECTLY from the mandibular nerve?
    • Meningeal branch (GSA)
    • nerve to medial pterygoid (BE)
    • Anterior trunk (GSA)
    • Posterior Trunk (GSA)
  17. What structures branch from the Anterior trunk of the mandibular nerve?
    • Masseteric nerve (BE)
    • Deep Temporal nerves (BE)
    • Nerve to lateral pterygoid (BE)
    • Buccal nerve (GSA)
  18. What structures branch from the Posterior trunk of the mandibular nerve?
    • Auriculotemporal nerve (GSA)
    • inferior alveolar nerve (GSA) --> Mental nerve (GSA) and Nerve to myohyoid (BE)
    • Lingual Nerve (GSA)
  19. What are the structures innervated by the mandibular nerve and its branches?
    • external acoustic meatus
    • region of the temple
    • anterior external ear
    • eardrum (tympanic membrane)
    • cheek
    • lower lip
    • chin
    • Dura of the lateral middle cranial fossa
    • sensory impulse from anterior 2/3 of tongue (with chorda tympani) 
    • lower teeth
  20. Trace the path of the abducent nerve.
    Abducent nerve: brainstem / superior orbital fissure / lateral rectus muscle
  21. What fiber type(s) does the abducent nerve carry?
    It only carries GSE fibers and only innervates the Lateral rectus muscle
  22. Trace the path of the facial nerve up until it branches.
    Facial Nerve: brain stem / internal acoustic meatus / geniculate ganglion / divides into branches / stylomastoid foramen
  23. What are the initial branches of the facial nerve, their fiber types and what structures do they innervate?
    • Greater petrosal nerve (GVE) - lacrimal and mucous gland of nasal cavity
    • Nerve to stapedius (BE) - stapedius
    • Chorda tympani (SA - taste) anterior 2/3 of tongue
    • GSA fibers - internal and external ear
    • Facial nerve - facial muscles
  24. The facial nerves further divide after it passes the parotid gland. What are the divisions?
    • Temporal branch
    • Zygomatic branch
    • Buccal branch
    • Marginal mandibular branch
    • Cervical branch
  25. Trace the path of the cochlear nerve
    Vestibulocochlear nerve: brain stem / internal acoustic meatus / cochlear nerve / organs of hearing
  26. Trace the path of the vestubular nerve
    Vestibulocochlear nerve: brain stem / internal acoustic meatus / vestibular nerve / vestibular ganglion / superior/inferior part / organs of balance
  27. What fiber type(s) does the vestibulocochlear nerve carry
    Special Afferent fibers only
  28. What fiber type(s) does the glossopharyngeal nerve carry?
    • General visceral afferent 
    • General somatic afferent
    • General visceral efferent
    • Special Afferent
    • Special Efferent (BE)
  29. What structures are innervated by the glossopharyngeal nerve. Be specific about fiber types
    • General visceral afferent: Carotid body and sinus
    • General somatic afferent: Sensory input from posterior 1/3 of tongue, structures in oral cavity, mucosa of middle ear 
    • General visceral afferent: Parotid gland
    • Special afferent:Taste from posterior 1/3 of tongue 
    • Special efferent: Stylopharyngeus muscle
  30. What fiber types does the vagus nerve carry?
    • General visceral afferent 
    • General somatic afferent
    • General visceral efferent
    • Special Afferent
    • Special Efferent (BE)
  31. What structures are innervated by the vagus nerve? Be specific about fiber types
    • General visceral afferent: parts of lyryngopharynx, parts of the ear, posterior dura mater
    • General somatic afferent: changes in BP, changes in blood chemistry, thoracic viscera, abdominal viscera
    • General visceral afferent: pharynx, larynx, heart, lungs, viscera of midgut and foregut
    • Special afferent: taste epiglottis, taste from pharynx
    • Special Efferent: Palatoglossus muscle, all muscles of the soft palate (except 1), all muscles of the pharynx (except 1), larynx
  32. Describe the path of the Accessory nerve
    The accessory nerve has 2 roots: a cervical root and a cranial root. The cranial root carries motor impulses and the cervical root carries sensory information

    sensory fibers: medulla oblongata / jugular foramen / trapezius and sternocleidomastoid

    Motor fibers: foramen magnum / C1-C5
  33. Describe the path of the hypoglossal nerve
    Hypoglossal nerve: medulla oblongata / hypoglossal canal / intrinsic muscles of the tongue, genioglossus, hypoglossus, styloglossus

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