reproduction class notes - final

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reproduction class notes - final
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2009-12-08 01:21:39
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A&P Final reproduction class notes
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A&P Final reproduction class notes
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  1. Gamates are ________
    sex cells
  2. males produce ____and transfer them to femlae through ______________or ______________
    spermatozoa, sexual intercourse, copulation
  3. females ...
    • produce ova
    • receives sperm
    • provide siter for fertilization, implantation, gestation, parturition
    • nourishes baby through mammary glands (lactation)
  4. reproduction system ....
    • - perpetuates species and passes gentic material to next generation
    • - has latenet development (activates by normal control at puberty)
  5. primary sex organs are ________
    gonads
  6. gonads ...
    • - produce gametes
    • - produce and secrete sex hormones
    • (testes) --> male
    • (Ovaries) ---> females
  7. secondary sex organs in males ....
    • structures essential in aquiring and transporting sperm
    • - ducts to transport sperm include:
  8. secondary sex organs in females:
    - essential for fertilization of ovum, implantation of blastocyst develipment of embryo and fetus and parturtion
  9. vagina
    • - secondary sex organ for females
    • - recieves penis and semen
    • - baby passes through during delivery
  10. uterine (fallopian) tubes
    • - eggs transported through here after ovulation on way to uters
    • - secondary sex organ in females
    • - sites of fertilization
  11. - uterus (womb)
    • - implantation and gestation here
    • - secondary sex characterstic in females
    • - muscular wall are active in parturition
  12. mamary glands
    • - secondary sex organ in females
    • - secrete milk after parturition
  13. secondary sex characterstics
    • - not essential for reproduction
    • - generally considered sexually attractant features
  14. secondary sex charactersitics in males :
    body physiqye, body hair, pitch of voice
  15. secondary sex charactersitics in females
    • body physique, pattern of body hair , development of breast in feamlaes
    • - only human females have protruding breat that may function as a sexual attractant
  16. testes contains :
    • seminiferous tubules
    • and interstitial cells
  17. seminiferous tubules
    produce spermatozoa (immature sperm cells)
  18. interstital cells
    produce and secret male sex hormones
  19. epididymides
    • storage and maturation of spermatozoa
    • convey spermatozoa to ductus deferentia
  20. length of epididmidus
    20 feet
  21. ductus deferntia
    • - store spermatozoa
    • - conveys spermatozoa to ejaculatory ducts
  22. ejaculatory ductus
    revive spermatoza and additives to produce seminal fluid
  23. seminal vesicles
    secrete alkaline fluid contiang nutrients and prostaglandins
  24. prostate gland
    secretes alkalaine fluid that helps neutralie acidic sminal fluid and enhance motility of spermatozoa
  25. bulbourethal gland
    secrete fluid that lubricates urethrea and end of penis
  26. scrotum
    encloses and protects testes
  27. penis
    • conveys urine and seminal fluid
    • organ of copulation in males
  28. ovaries
    produce ova and female sex hormones
  29. uterine tubes
    • - convery ovum toward uterus
    • - site of fertilization
    • - convery developing embryo to uterus
  30. uterus
    • - site of implantation
    • - protects and sustains life of embryo and fetus during pregnancy
    • - active role in parturition
  31. vagina
    • - conveys uterine secretions to outside of body
    • - recieves erect penis and semen during copulation and ejaculation
    • - passage for fetus during parturition
  32. labia majora
    encloses and protect other external reproductive organs
  33. labia minora
    • - forms margins of vestibule
    • - protects openings of vagina nad urethra
  34. clitoris
    glans of clitoris is richly supplied with sensory nerve endings
  35. vestibule
    cleft between labia minora that includes vaginal and urethral openings
  36. vestibular glands
    secretes fluid that moistens and lubricates vestibule and vaginal opening during intercourse
  37. What in females is similar to the bulbourthal glands in males ?
    vestibular glands
  38. mammary glands
    produce and secrete milk for nourishment of infant
  39. Spermatozoa
    • head, body,m tail, acrosome
    • - sperm are microscopic, tadpole shapped strucutre and about 0.6 mm long
  40. head
    • oval shapped
    • contains nuclues with 23 chromosomes
  41. body of sperm
    • cylindrical
    • contains numerous mitochondira spiraled around a filamentous core
    • mitochondria provide energy for locootion
  42. tail
    • - elongagted
    • - propels sperm with lashing movements
    • maximum unassisted rate of sperm movement is about 3 mm/n
  43. acrosome
    • - tip of head
    • - contains enzymes that help sperm penetrate into ovum
    • - life expectany of ejaculated sperm is 48-72 hours at body temperature
  44. seminiferous tubules
    functional units of testis
  45. spermatogenesis occurs in ________.
    seminiferous tubules
  46. ovarian cycle
    • - At birth females have 400,000-500,000 primary occytes in each ovary
    • - by pberty number has decrease to about 250,000
    • - only about 400 actually mature and are ovulated in lifetime
  47. oogenesis
    meotic process by which ova are formed
  48. morphogenesis
    • - formation of human body before birth (prenatally)
    • - some sensitive stages durign which genetic or enviormental conditions may affect normal devlopment of baby
    • - nutrition, smoking and drugs may affect development
    • - begins with one fetilized egg and culminates some 28 weeks later with a complex orginzation of cells
  49. Gestations
    is a a period of prenatal development: usually 9 months
  50. pre-embryonic stage
    • - last 2 weeks
    • - inititated with fertilization of an ovum by femal and sprm from male
    • - includes fertilization, transportation of fertilized eggs through uterine tube, mitotic divisions, implantation and formation of primordial embryonic tissue
  51. fertilization
    • - occurs within uterine tube
    • - usually 12- 24 hours following fertilization
  52. zygote
    - fertilized egg
  53. cleavage
    • - begins withing about 30 hours
    • - forms blastomers
    • - several cleavegs occus at structures passed down uterine tube
    • -enters uterus on about thrid day
    • - now a ball of 16 or more cells called a morula
  54. blastomers
    • - 2 identical daughter cells
    • - one of the ways that twins can be formed
  55. Morula
    • - a ball of 16 or more cells
    • - about the same size as a zygote
  56. blastocyst
    - when morula has established two groups of cells
  57. - blastocyst cavity
    - hollow fluid-filled center of blastocyst
  58. implantation
    blastocyst implnats between 5th and 7th day
  59. embryonic
    - embryonic disk forms followed by 3 primary germ layres
  60. ectoderm
    • sensory strucute and nervous system
    • - one of the primary germ layer of embryonic disk
    • - forms epidermis of ksin and epidermal derivatives
    • - nervous tissues; sense organ
    • - lens of eye:enamel of teeth
    • - pituitary gland
    • - adreanal medulla
  61. Mesoderm
    • - muscle ( smooth, cardiac, and skeletal)
    • - connective tissues
    • - dermis of skin; dentin of teeth
    • - epithelium of blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, body cavities, joint cavities
    • - internal reproductive organs
    • - kidneys and ureters
    • - adreneal cortex
  62. endoderm
    • - epithelium of pharynx, auditory canl, tonsils, thyroid, parathyroid, thymus, larynx, trachea, lungs, digestive tract, urinary bladder and urethra and vagina
    • - liver and pancreas
  63. hermaphroditism
    • - various degrees of intermediate sex
    • - when both male and female gonadal tissues are present
  64. psudohermaphroditisim
    - caused by hormonal influences during fetal devlopment
  65. hermaphrodite
    • - person with undiffernetiated or ambigious external genitalia
    • - individuals are sterile
  66. Turner's syndrome
    • when oly one X chromosome is presnt
    • - individual appers to be female
    • - gonads are rudimentary or absent and do not mature at puberty
  67. Klinefelter's syndrome
    • - when XXY chromomes are presnt
    • - develops breast and male genitalia
    • - had undeveloped seminiferous tubules
  68. cryptorchidism
    • - means hiddne testies
    • -failure of one of both testes to descend into scrotum
    • - occurs in 3% of male infants
    • - should be treated before 5 years old
  69. Gubernaculums
    pull the testes from ___ and into the scrotum
  70. impotence
    • - inability of a sexually mature male to maintain erection long enough to have an ejaculation
    • - causes may be physical, neurological, result of disease, psychological
  71. infertility
    • - inability to fertilize ovum
    • - not same as impotance
    • - maybe fault of either male or female
    • - maybe caused in males by alcoholism, dietary deficiencies, injury, excessive heart, hormonal imbalance
  72. sterility
    similar to infertility but is a permanet condition
  73. vasectomy
    sterilization of male by simple surgical procedure
  74. Gonorrhea
    • - clap
    • - caused by bacterium neisseria honorrhea
    • - males have painful urination and discharge pus
    • - females are usually asymptomatic
    • --> may infect uterus and uterine tube
    • --> may be passed by mother to eyes of newborn and cause blindness
  75. Syphilis
    • - caused by bacterium Treponema pallidum
    • - appears and disapperas throughout life if untreated
    • - may cause blidness and insanity if untreated
  76. prostatic carcinoma
    • - cancer of the prostate gland
    • - second leading cuase of death from cancer in males in the United States
    • - commone in males over 60
    • - accounts for 19,000 death/ year
  77. Orchitis
    • - infection of testes
    • - various cuases including mumps
  78. gynecology
    medical specaility concerned with female reproductive system
  79. obstetrics
    speality daling with pregnancy and childbirth
  80. ectopic pregnancy
    • - results from implantation of blastocys in location other than in body of uterus
    • - most frequently in uterine tube
  81. tubular pregnancy
    • - usually treated by removing affected tube
    • - when an etopic pregnancy is in uterine//falopian tube
  82. Amenorrhea
    absence of menstruation
  83. normal amenorrhea
    - follows menopause, occurs during pregnancy and may occcur during lactation
  84. primary amenorrhea
    • - when a woman has never menstruated
    • - usually accompanied by failure of development of secondary sexual characteristics
  85. secondary amenorrhea
    • - cessation of mensturation which have had normal menstural periods and are not pregnant and have not gone through menopause
    • --> caused by endocrine disturbances, psychological factors, etc.
    • --> may be caused temporaily by stress, sickness, fatigue, poor nutrition, hormonal imbalance
  86. Uterine neoplasmas
    • - extremely common problem of female reproductive tract
    • - most are benign
    • --> cyst, polyps, smooth muscle, tumors
  87. uterine cancer
    • - most common malignancy of femlae reproductive tract
    • - cervix is most common site
    • - cervical cancer is 2nd only to breast cancer in frequency for young women
    • - most common in women who hav had frequent intercous with mutiple parterns during their teens and onward
    • - can be detected by PAP smears and can be cured then
  88. hysterectomy
    • - surgical removal of uterus
    • - may be usted to treat cervical cancer
  89. oophorectomy
    removal of ovaries
  90. dysplasia
    • - fibrocystic disease of breast
    • - nonmalignant
    • - affects about 50% of women 30-45 years of age
  91. carcinoma of the breast
    • most common malignancy in women
    • - 1 in 13 will develop breast cancer
    • - of these 1/3 will die
    • - leading cause of death in women between age of 40 and 50
    • -mean also get breast cancer but at 1% rate for women
    • - cause are not known
    • - highest incidence is in women over 35 have family history of breast cancer and who are nulliparous
  92. mammography
    x- ray of mammary glands to confirm breast cancer
  93. mastectomy
    removal of breast and perhaps assocated tissues
  94. nulliparous
    no children
  95. simple mastectomy
    removal of entire breast, but not underlying lymphy nodes
  96. modified readical mastectomy
    complete remval of breast, lymphatic draingage and perhaps of pectorals major muscle
  97. radical mastectomy
    - similar to modified radical mastectomy except pectorails majore muscle is always removme as well as axillary lymph nodes and adjacent connective tusse
  98. Trimesters
    genreally gestation is divided into 3 of these ...
  99. First trimester
    - all major body systems are formed, fetal herat can be deteced, external genitalia are devloped and fetus is about width of palm of an adult's hand
  100. second trimester
    • - epidermal features are formed and viatl body systms are functioning
    • - fetus would likley not survie if born
  101. third trimester
    • - tremendous growth and refromed
    • - will surrvuve if born prematurely
  102. mutiple pregnancy
    occurs in 1 in 85 pregnancies
  103. Dizygotic ( fraternal)
    • - develop from 2 zygotes resulting from 2 spermatoza fertilizing 2 ova maybe of same kind or diffrent and both egg fertilized at diffrent times
    • - about 2/3 of twins
  104. monozygotic (identical)
    • - twins from 1 zygote
    • - 1/3 oftwins
    • - generally identical
  105. siamese twins
    • - occurs in mnozygotic pregnancies when incomplete seperation
    • - conjoined twins
  106. amniocentesis
    • -technique used to obtain a sample of amniotic fluid with a syringe
    • - used to determine fetal maturity
    • - also can help predict serioud disorders lik Down's syndrome (mongolism) and Gaucher's disease ( a metabolic disorder)
  107. Regeneration
    - ability lost during embryonic development

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