EPPP All 3

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docsavage
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247008
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EPPP All 3
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2013-11-17 21:06:40
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EPPP
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EPPP Research Design, Statistics, Assessment
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  1. Peg-Word System
    Involves memorizing a set of 10 visual images that can be pegs on which to hang ideas (e.g., 1 is bun, 2 is shoe etc). Then the person associates each image with what is to be remembered.
  2. Substitute Word Technique
    Person breaks down the word to be remembered into parts and substitutes words that are more familiar and can be visualized. (e.g., catabolize -- cat, balls, eyes)
  3. Threats to Internal Validity
    • 1. History (external event)
    • 2. Maturation (biological or psych change in subjects)
    • 3. Testing (practice effects)
    • 4. Instrumentation (measuring instrument changes)
    • 5. Statistical regression (extreme scores fall closer to mean)
    • 6. Selection (pre-existing subject factors)
    • 7. Differential Mortality (drop-out rate)
    • 8. Experimenter bias
  4. Factorial Design
    • Multiple IV's
    • Combines every level of one IV with every level of the other IV
  5. Internal Validity in Research Methods
    A study has internal validity if it is possible to determine whether a causal relationship exists between IV and DV.
  6. Ways to control for threats to internal validity
    • Random assignment
    • Matching
    • Blocking (studying effects of extraneous variables like gender)
    • Holding extraneous variables constant
    • ANCOVA
  7. External Validity
    Refers to the generalizability of the results of the study
  8. Threats to External Validity
    • 1. Interaction btw selection and tx
    • 2. Interaction btw history and tx
    • 3. Interaction btw testing and tx (pretext sensitization)
    • 4. Demand characteristics
    • 5. Hawthorne effect
    • 6. Order effects
  9. Ways to increase external validity
    • 1. Random selection
    • 2. Naturalistic research
    • 3. Single- and Double-Blind Research
    • 4. Counterbalancing
  10. Random Selection
    All members of the population under study have an equal chance of being selected to participate in research.
  11. Stratified Random Sampling
    Consists of taking a random sample from each of several subgroups of the total target population
  12. Cluster Sampling
    Unit of sampling is a naturally occurring group of individuals
  13. Latin Square
    Technique for controlling order effects in which administration of treatments is ordered so that each appears once and only once in every position.
  14. Longitudinal designs tend to _________ age-related change.
    • Underestimate
    • (dropouts, practice effects)
  15. Cross-sectional designs tend to ______________ age-related change
    Overestimate
  16. Intergenerational Effect
    When observed differences between different age groups in a cross-sectional design may have to do with experience rather than age.
  17. Variance
    The average of the squared differences of each observation from the mean

    (square of standard deviation)
  18. Standard Deviation
    Square root of the variance
  19. Mean and SD of stanine?
    • Mean = 5
    • SD = 2
  20. Z-Score of +1 is equal to a percentile rank of...
    84
  21. Z-score of -1 is equal to a percentile rank of...
    16
  22. Z-score of +2 is equal to a percentile rank of...
    98
  23. Z-score of -2 is equal to a percentile rank of..
    2
  24. What percentage of scores falls between z-scores of +1 and -1?
    68%
  25. What percentage of scores falls between a z-score of +2 and -2?
    95%
  26. Time Sampling
    • Behavioral Measurement
    • Involves breaking the period of interest into smaller periods of time
    • Appropriate when behavior is not discrete and has no distinct beginning and end.
  27. Momentary Time Sampling
    Observer records whether target behavior is present or absent at the moment that the time interval ends.
  28. Whole-Interval Sampling (Interval Sampling, Interval Recording)
    Time sampling method that involves scoring target behavior positively only if it is exhibited for the full duration of the time interval.
  29. Analogue Research
    Evaluates treatment under conditions that only resemble or approximate clinical situations. (e.g., participants are college students and volunteers and therapists are grad students)

    Tight experimental control, but limited generalizability
  30. Proportional Sampling
    Individuals are randomly selected in proportion to their representation in the general population.
  31. Systematic Sampling
    Involves selecting every kth element after a random start. Needs to be arranged in such a way that it is not biased
  32. Solomon Four-Group Design
    • Best control for test practice effects
    • 4 groups:
    • 1. Pre, post, gets intervention in btw
    • 2. Pre, post, no intervention
    • 3. Post, intervention
    • 4. Post, no intervention
  33. John Henry effect
    Compensatory rivalry

    Occurs when persons in a control group try harder than usual in the spirit of competition with the experimental group. In this situation, members of the control group may actually outperform persons in the experimental or treatment group.

    To control for effect, experimental and control groups should not know about each other.
  34. Reactivity
    Occurs when subjects behave in a certain way just because they are participating in research and being observed.

    E.g., Hawthorne effecg
  35. Kurtosis
    Refers to how peaked a distribution is.
  36. Leptokurtotic
    Distribution with very sharp peak
  37. Platykurtotic
    Distribution with flattened peak.
  38. Standard Error of the Mean
    Expected deviation between an estimated population mean (i.e., sample mean) and the true population mean

    SD/ square root of N
  39. Central Limit Theorem
    States that assuming an infinite number of equal sized samples are drawn from the population and the means of these samples were plotted, a normally distributed distribution of means would result.
  40. Alpha
    The probability of making a Type 1 error
  41. Beta
    The probability of making a Type II error
  42. There is a _________ relationship between alpha and beta.
    inverse
  43. df for single sample chi-square
    df = # of columns - 1
  44. df for multiple sample chi-square
    df = (# of rows - 1) X (# of columns - 1)
  45. df for t-test (single sample)
    df = N-1
  46. T-test for matched samples
    df = # of pairs - 1
  47. T-test for independent samples
    df = N-2
  48. One-Way ANOVAs
    • df total = N-1
    • df btw grps = # of grps -1
    • df within grps: df total - df btw grps
  49. Calculating Expected Frequencies in Chi-Squares
    N and groups even: N/total # cells

    • When data given for each cell:
    • sum of row X sum of column/N
  50. Coefficient of Determination
    Calculated by squaring the correlation coefficient. Represents the amount of variability in Y that is explained by X.
  51. Assumptions of bivariate correlations
    • 1. Linear relationship
    • 2. Homoscedasticity
    • 3. Unrestricted range
  52. Ipsative Scores
    Provides information about the relative strengths and weaknesses of a person. Does not compare the person to others
  53. Empirical-Criterion Keying
    A process for selecting items to be used in a test. Items are keyed to an external criterion, and are intended to differentiate between groups who have a particular train and those who do not.
  54. Spearman's Theory of Intelligence
    Proposed intelligence is a single factor (g)
  55. Thurstone's Theory of Intelligence
    • 7 distinct primary mental abilities:
    • 1. Verbal comprehension
    • 2. Word fluency
    • 3. Numerical fluency
    • 4. Spatial visualization
    • 5. Associative memory
    • 6. Perceptual speed
    • 7. Reasoning
  56. Catell's Theory of Intelligence
    • "g factor" does exist, with two sybtypes:
    • 1. Fluid intelligence: capacity to acquire new knowledge and solve new problems (bio, genetics)
    • 2. Crystallized intelligence: knowledge and learning gained over one's lifetime through an interaction between fluid intelligence and environment
  57. Catell-Horn-Carroll Theory of Intelligence
    • Most empirically supported
    • 3 levels:

    Stratum III: general intelligence (g)

    Stratum II: 10 broad cognitive abilities (fluid reasoning, short-term memory, visual processing, reading and writing etc)

    Stratum I: 70 narrow cognitive abilities
  58. Gardner's Multiple Intelligences
    • 1. Linguistic
    • 2. Logical-mathematical
    • 3. Spatial
    • 4. Musical
    • 5. Bodily-kinesthetic
    • 6. Interpersonal
    • 7. Intrapersonal
    • 8. Naturalistic
  59. Sternberg's Triarchic Theory
    • Focuses on process rather than product (thinking processes)
    • 1. Internal Components: those we use to acquire, store, perceive, and remember)
    • 2. Capacity to adapt to environmental changes
    • 3. Ability to apply past experience to novel problems
  60. Age range of WAIS-IV
    16-90
  61. Age range of WISC-IV
    6-0 to 16-11
  62. Verbal Comprehension of WISC
    • Sim
    • Vocab
    • Comp
    • Info (sup)
    • Word reasoning (sup)
  63. Perceptual Reasoning of WISC
    • Block design
    • Picture concepts
    • Matrix reasoning
    • Picture completion (sup)
  64. Working Memory of WISC
    • Digit Span
    • LNS
    • Arithmetic (sup)
  65. PSI of WISC
    • Coding
    • SS
    • Cancellation (sup)
  66. People who are more educated and of higher SES may obtain ______ VCI than PRI scores
    higher
  67. Persons with hx of substance dependence or schizophrenia have a tendency for PRI to be...
    lower than VCI
  68. Test of choice for assessing giftedness and mental retardation
    Stanford-Binet 5
  69. Fake Good pattern on MMPI?
    • Low F
    • High K
  70. Fake bad profile on MMPI?
    • High F
    • Low K
  71. Scales of MMPI
    • 1. Hypochondriasis
    • 2. Depression
    • 3. Hysteria
    • 4. Psychopathic deviate
    • 5. Masculinity-Femininity
    • 6. Paranoia
    • 7. Psychasthenia
    • 8. Schizophrenia
    • 9. Hypomania
    • 0. Social introversion
  72. MCMI-II
    • 175 t-f items
    • Normed on a clinical population, so should not be used in a normal population.
    • Tends to exaggerate pathology
  73. Exner's Scoring System
    • Each response scored on a variety of dimensions:
    • 1) Content
    • 2) Location
    • 3) Form quality
    • 4) Developmental quality
  74. Criteria for autism
    • 1. Impairment in social interaction
    • 2. Impairment in communication
    • 3. Restricted repertoire of activities
    • ONSET PRIOR TO AGE 3
  75. Rett's Disorder
    • Normal prenatal and perinatal development
    • Between 5-48 months, sudden deceleration of head growth
    • Acquisition of stereotypies
    • Loss of social engagement
    • poorly coordinated movements
    • Poor language
    • ONLY FEMALES
  76. Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
    • Normal development for 2 years
    • Then loss of acquired skills before age 10 in at least two areas:
    • language
    • Social skills
    • Play
    • Motor skills
    • Bowel/bladder control
    • Abnormalities in at least two areas:
    • social interaction
    • communication
    • restriction of behaviors, interests, activities
    • MORE COMMON AMONG MALES
  77. ADHD
    • Persistent pattern (at least 6 months) of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity
    • Some symptoms must have been present before age 7
    • Impairment must occur in at least two settings and be severe enough to interfere with functioning
  78. Non-pharmacological interventions for ADHD
    • Behavior therapy
    • Social skills training
    • Parenting educ
    • EEG biofeedback
  79. Conduct Disorder
    • Persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others are violated
    • 1. Aggression to people and animals
    • 2. Destruction of property
    • 3. Deceitfulness or theft
    • 4. Serious violation of rules
    • Must exhibit 3 criteria in 1-year period and at least 1 criteria in past 6 months
  80. Tx of Conduct Disorder
    • Behavior modification
    • Family therapy
    • Individual therapy
    • Social skills training
    • Medication
    • May warrant residential or inpatient treatment
  81. Oppositional Defiant Disorder
    • Recurrent pattern of negativisitc, defiant, disobedient, and hostile behavior toward authority figures.
    • Must last at least 6 months
    • Must include 4 of the following:
    • - Freq loss of temper
    • - Freq arguments with adults
    • - Deliberate defiance of rules
    • - Deliberate annoyance of others
    • - Blaming others
    • - Being easily annoyed/touchy
    • - Freq angry and resentful
    • - Freq spiteful and vindictive
  82. Encopresis
    • Repeated passage of feces in inappropriate places, whether intentionally or involuntarily
    • Incidents must occur at least once a month for a minimum of 3 months
    • Must be at least 4 years
  83. Enuresis
    • Repeated voiding of urine into bed or cloths, whether intentional or involuntary.
    • Twice a week for at least 3 months OR
    • Results in significant distress or impairment in functioning
    • Must be at least 5 years
  84. Substance Dependence
    • Maladaptive pattern of substance use that leads to impairment or distress, with at least 3 symptoms in 12-months:
    • - Tolerance
    • - Withdrawal
    • - Consumption of larger amounts over a longer period of time than was intended
    • - Unsuccessful attempts to cut down
    • - A lot of time spent in activities trying to get the substance or recover from its effects
    • - Giving up activities
    • - Cont use despite psychological or physical problems
  85. Tension Reduction Hypothesis of Alcohol Use
    • Conger
    • People drink because they feel unpleasant tension and through drinking they are able to avoid or reduce unpleasant stress.
    • Negative reinforcement
    • Experimental studies don't support
  86. Substance Abuse
    • Maladaptive pattern of substance use resulting in recurrent and significant problems within a 12-month period
    • e.g., failure to meet major role obligations at work, school, home
    • Recurrent use in potentially hazarous situations etc
  87. Schizophrenia
    • 2 or more:
    • Delusions
    • Hallucinations
    • Disorganized speech
    • Grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior
    • Negative symptoms
    • ONLY 1 SYMPTOM REQUIRED IF DELUSIONS ARE BIZARRE OR IF HALLUCINATIONS INVOLVE A RUNNING COMMENTARY
    • Active symptoms for at least 1 month, continuous signs for at least 6 months
  88. Neuroimaging and schizophrenia
    • Enlargement of lateral and 3rd ventricles
    • Smaller cerebral cortex
    • Smaller thalamus
    • Decreased frontal lobe activity
  89. Schizophreniform Disorder
    Identical to schizophrenia except in terms of duration of symptoms (episode lasts at least 1 month but less than 6 months)
  90. Schizoaffective Disorder
    • Uninterrupted period of illness during which there has been a Major Depressive, Manic, or Mixed episode with symptoms of schizophrenia.
    • Delusions or hallucinations for at least 2 weeks w/o mood symptoms
  91. MDD
    5 or more symptoms during a 2-week period that represent a change from previous functioning
  92. Manic Episode
    Abnormally elevated, expansive, or irritable mood that lasts at least 1 week, with 3 or more symptoms
  93. Hypomanic Episode
    • Symptoms identical to manic episode but not severe enough to impair functioning or necessitate hospitalization¬†
    • 3 or more symptoms, at least 4 days
  94. Dysthymic Disorder
    Depressed mood for most of the day, for more days than not, for at least two years
  95. Panic Control Treatment
    • Barlow
    • 1. Interoceptive exposure
    • 2. Cognitive restructuring
    • 3. Breathing retraining
  96. Treatment for OCD
    • Anafranil (clomipramine) or Prozac
    • Flooding
    • Thought stopping
  97. Age of onset for OCD
    • Men: 6-15
    • Women: 20-29
  98. Tx for PTSD
    • Stress Inoculation
    • Cognitive Processing Therapy
    • Prolonged Exposure (PE)
    • Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing
  99. Psychological Debriefing (PD)
    • Thought to prevent PTSD
    • Trauma survivors "debrief" after trauma
    • No empircal support, might even make recovery more dificult
  100. Acute Stress Disorder
    • Initially responds to trauma with fear, helplessness, horror
    • While experiencing event, person may have dissociative symptoms
    • Lasts min 2 days and max 4 weeks; occurs w/in 4 weeks of traumatic event

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