Time sampling method that involves scoring target behavior positively only if it is exhibited for the full duration of the time interval.
Evaluates treatment under conditions that only resemble or approximate clinical situations. (e.g., participants are college students and volunteers and therapists are grad students)
Tight experimental control, but limited generalizability
Individuals are randomly selected in proportion to their representation in the general population.
Involves selecting every kth element after a random start. Needs to be arranged in such a way that it is not biased
Solomon Four-Group Design
Best control for test practice effects
1. Pre, post, gets intervention in btw
2. Pre, post, no intervention
3. Post, intervention
4. Post, no intervention
John Henry effect
Occurs when persons in a control group try harder than usual in the spirit of competition with the experimental group. In this situation, members of the control group may actually outperform persons in the experimental or treatment group.
To control for effect, experimental and control groups should not know about each other.
Occurs when subjects behave in a certain way just because they are participating in research and being observed.
E.g., Hawthorne effecg
Refers to how peaked a distribution is.
Distribution with very sharp peak
Distribution with flattened peak.
Standard Error of the Mean
Expected deviation between an estimated population mean (i.e., sample mean) and the true population mean
SD/ square root of N
Central Limit Theorem
States that assuming an infinite number of equal sized samples are drawn from the population and the means of these samples were plotted, a normally distributed distribution of means would result.
The probability of making a Type 1 error
The probability of making a Type II error
There is a _________ relationship between alpha and beta.
df for single sample chi-square
df = # of columns - 1
df for multiple sample chi-square
df = (# of rows - 1) X (# of columns - 1)
df for t-test (single sample)
df = N-1
T-test for matched samples
df = # of pairs - 1
T-test for independent samples
df = N-2
df total = N-1
df btw grps = # of grps -1
df within grps: df total - df btw grps
Calculating Expected Frequencies in Chi-Squares
N and groups even: N/total # cells
When data given for each cell:
sum of row X sum of column/N
Coefficient of Determination
Calculated by squaring the correlation coefficient. Represents the amount of variability in Y that is explained by X.
Assumptions of bivariate correlations
1. Linear relationship
3. Unrestricted range
Provides information about the relative strengths and weaknesses of a person. Does not compare the person to others
A process for selecting items to be used in a test. Items are keyed to an external criterion, and are intended to differentiate between groups who have a particular train and those who do not.
Spearman's Theory of Intelligence
Proposed intelligence is a single factor (g)
Thurstone's Theory of Intelligence
7 distinct primary mental abilities:
1. Verbal comprehension
2. Word fluency
3. Numerical fluency
4. Spatial visualization
5. Associative memory
6. Perceptual speed
Catell's Theory of Intelligence
"g factor" does exist, with two sybtypes:
1. Fluid intelligence: capacity to acquire new knowledge and solve new problems (bio, genetics)
2. Crystallized intelligence: knowledge and learning gained over one's lifetime through an interaction between fluid intelligence and environment