French Revolution

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French Revolution
2013-11-15 07:39:11
French Revolution Vocab

French Revolution Vocab
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  1. Parlements
    regional legislative and judicial bodies in Ancien Régime France.
  2. Louis XV
    Louis XV, known as Louis the Well beloved was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1 September 1715 until his death. Until he reached maturity in 1723, his kingdom was ruled by Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, his first cousin twice removed, as Regent of France. Cardinal Fleury was his chief minister from 1726 until the Cardinal's death in 1743, at which time the young king took over sole control of the kingdom.
  3. Louis XVI
    Louis XVI was King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, after which he was subsequently King of the French from 1791 to 1792, before his deposition and execution during the French Revolution.
  4. Marie Antoinette
    Marie Antoinette was born an Archduchess of Austria,and Queen of France and Navarre from 1774 to 1792. She was the fifteenth and penultimate child of Holy Roman Emperor Francis I and Empress Maria Theresa.
  5. Necker's Report
    The Compte rendu was a document published in February 1781 by Jacques Necker, finance minister to the King, in which he presented the state of France's finances.
  6. Third Estate
    The common people
  7. Abbie Sieyes
    was a French Roman Catholic abbé, clergyman and political writer. He was one of the chief political theorists of the French Revolution, and also played a prominent role in the French Consulate and First French Empire. His 1789 pamphlet What is the Third Estate? became the de facto manifesto of the Revolution, helping to transform the Estates-General into theNational Assembly in June 1789
  8. Voting by order rather than head
    The Third Estate wanted the estates to meet as one body and vote per deputy ("voting by heads" rather than "by orders"). The other two estates, while having their own grievances against royal absolutism, believed – correctly, as history was to prove – that they stood to lose more power to the Third Estate than they stood to gain from the king.
  9. Cahiers de doleances
    The Cahiers de Doléances were the lists of grievances drawn up by each of the three Estates in France, between March and April 1789, the year in which the French Revolution began.
  10. National Assembly
    the National Assembly, which existed from June 17, 1789 to July 9, 1789, was a transitional body between the Estates-General and the National Constituent Assembly.
  11. Tennis Court Oath
    The Tennis Court Oath was a pivotal event during the first days of the French Revolution. The Oath was a pledge signed by 576 of the 577 members from the Third Estate who were locked out of a meeting of the Estates-General on 20 June 1789.
  12. National Constituent Assemble
    The National Constituent Assembly was formed from the National Assembly on 9 July 1789, during the first stages of the French Revolution. It dissolved on 30 September 1791 and was succeeded by the Legislative Assembly.
  13. Fall of the Bastille
    The storming of the Bastille and the subsequent Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen was the third event of this opening stage of the revolution. The first had been the revolt of the nobility, refusing to aid King Louis XVI through the payment of taxes. The second had been the formation of the National Assembly and the Tennis Court Oath.
  14. The Great Fear
    Rural unrest had been present in France since the worsening grain shortage of the spring, and fueled by the rumors of an aristocrat "famine plot" to starve or burn out the population, peasant and town people mobilized in many regions. In response to rumors, fearful peasants armed themselves in self-defense and, in some areas, attacked manor houses
  15. Rights of Man and Citizen
    a fundamental document of the French Revolution and in the history of human rights, defining the individual and collective rights of all the estates of the realm as universal. Influenced by the doctrine of "natural right", the rights of man are held to be universal: valid at all times and in every place, pertaining to human nature itself.
  16. March on Versailles
    began among women in the marketplaces of Paris who, on the morning of 5 October 1789, were near rioting over the high price and scarcity of bread. Their demonstrations quickly became intertwined with the activities of revolutionaries who were seeking liberal political reforms and a constitutional monarchy for France.
  17. Legislative Assembly
    was the legislature of France from 1 October 1791 to September 1792 during the years of the French Revolution. It provided the focus of political debate and revolutionary law-making between the periods of the National Constituent Assembly and of the National Convention
  18. Declaration of the Rights of Woman
    written in 1791 by French activist and playwright Olympe de Gouges. The Declaration is based on the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, seeking to expose the failure of the French Revolution which had been devoted to sex equality.
  19. Departments
    one of the three levels of government below the national level (“territorial collectivities”), between the region and the commune.
  20. metric system
    internationally agreed decimal system of measurement that was originally based on the mètre des Archives and the kilogramme des Archives introduced by France in 1799.
  21. Chapelier Law
    piece of legislation passed by the National Assembly during the first phase of the French Revolution (June 14, 1791), banning guilds as the early version of trade unions, as well as compagnonnage (by organizations such as the Compagnons du Tour de France) and the right to strike, and proclaiming free enterprise as the norm. It was advocated and drafted by Isaac René Guy le Chapelier.
  22. Assignats
    paper money issued by the National Assembly in France from 1789 to 1796, during the French Revolution. The assignats were issued after the confiscation of church properties in 1790 because the government was bankrupt. The government thought that the financial problems could be solved by printing certificates representing the value of church properties.
  23. Civil Constitution of the Clergy
    law passed on 12 July 1790 during the French Revolution, that subordinated the Roman Catholic Church in France to the French government. It is often stated this law confiscated the Church's French land holdings or banned monastic vows
  24. emigres
    French refugees, former members of the nobility, Catholic royalist sympathizers, or anti-republicans, who were expelled by the Decree of 17 December 1791 and the Law of Suspects of 1793, following the French Revolution
  25. Declaration of Pillnitz
    Declared the joint support of the Holy Roman Empire and of Prussia for King Louis XVI of France against the French Revolution. Stated that Austria would go to war if and only if all the other major European powers also went to war with France.
  26. Jacobins
    Was the most famous and influential political club in the development of the French Revolution. There were thousands of chapters throughout France, with a membership estimated at 420,000. After the fall of Robespierre the club was closed.
  27. Girondists
    A political faction in France within the Legislative Assembly and the National Convention during the French Revolution. They campaigned for the end of the monarchy but then resisted the spiraling momentum of the Revolution. They came into conflict with The Mountain. This conflict eventually led to the fall of the Girondists and their mass execution, the beginning of the Reign of Terror.
  28. September Massacres
    Were a wave of mob violence which overtook Paris in late summer 1792, during the French Revolution. By the time it had subsided, half the prison population of Paris had been executed: some 1,200 trapped prisoners, including many women and young boys. Outbursts of violence, in particular against the Roman Catholic Church, would continue throughout France for nearly a decade to come.
  29. National Convention
    Comprised the constitutional and legislative assembly of France and sat from 20 September 1792 to 26 October 1795. Executive power was de facto exercised by the Convention's Committee of Public Safety. The Convention and the Committee of Public Safety were dominated by La Montagne, a radical political group successively under the sway of such men as Marat, Danton, and Robespierre, and a policy of terror ensued.
  30. Sans-culottes
    Were the radical left-wing partisans of the lower classes; typically urban laborers, which dominated France. Though ill-clad and ill-equipped, they made up the bulk of the Revolutionary army during the early years of the French Revolutionary Wars.
  31. Paris Commune
    During the French Revolution was the government of Paris from 1789 until 1795. Established in the Hôtel de Ville just after the storming of the Bastille, the Commune became insurrectionary in the summer of 1792, essentially refusing to take orders from the central French government.
  32. Citizen Capet
    Louis XVI was stripped of his title and was now only Citizen Capet.
  33. Reign of Terror
    Was a period of violence that occurred after the onset of the French Revolution, incited by conflict between rival political factions, the Girondins and the Jacobins, and marked by mass executions of "enemies of the revolution". The death toll ranged in the tens of thousands, with 16,594 executed by guillotine (2,639 in Paris), and another 25,000 in summary executions across France.
  34. Committee of Public Safety
    Created by the National Convention and then restructured in July 1793, formed the de facto executive government in France during the Reign of Terror. Succeeded the previous Committee of General Defense and assumed its role of protecting the newly established republic against foreign attacks and internal rebellion.
  35. Levee en Mass
    When translated into English, essentially "mass uprising" or "mass mobilization." The concept originated as a French term for mass conscription during the French Revolutionary Wars.
  36. Robespierre
    As a member of the Estates-General, the Constituent Assembly and the Jacobin Club (Jacobin leader during the Reign of Terror), he advocated against the death penalty and for the abolition of slavery, while supporting equality of rights, universal suffrage and the establishment of a republic. He opposed war with Austria and the possibility of a coup by the Marquis de Lafayette. As a member of the Committee of Public Safety, he was an important figure during the period of the Revolution commonly known as the Reign of Terror, which ended a few months after his arrest and execution in July 1794.