Tradition and Transition

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  1. Describe a genealogy of Bordeaux winemakers
  2. Name 4 of Bordeaux's innovations in winemaking
    • 17C: Use of sulfuring barrels by Dutch
    • 19C: Invention of Bordeaux mixture (copper-sulphite CuSO4 + slaked lime Ca(OH)2 preventative fungicide)
    • 20C: Discovery how malolactic fermentation works
    • 1962: Haut-Brion introduces use of stainless steel vats (from dairy industry)
  3. Who invented the Bordeaux mixture?
    • Alexis Millardet (inventor)

    • Ulysse Gayon (organizer)
  4. Who was Ulysse Gayon? ("YOU-LEASE")
    • Student of Louis Pasteur
    • 1880: establishes Agronomy and Oenology Station;
    • 1916: station becomes part of University of Bordeaux (now called College of Oenology)
    • 1896: publishes findings from his lab at Lafite
  5. Name 3 findings of Ulysse Gayon now considered basic tenants of winemaking
    • high temperatures should be avoided during fermentation (kills yeast)
    • exposing wine to air during pumping over should be encouraged (helps yeast)
    • after 4 days in vats, significant amounts of bacteria begin to develop
  6. Name 2 famous students of Bordeaux's College of Oenology
    • Jean Ribereau-Gayon (grandson of Ullysse Gayon)

    • Emile Paynaud (protege of Jean)
  7. What is Emile Peynaud known for?
    • 1950s: Begins consulting for chateaux
    • Establishes consulting oenologist as we know it today
    • 1960s: explains how malolactic fermentation works
    • 1923-1995: Published 290 research papers and books (e.g., The Taste of Wine)
    • Crowning achievement: Getting winemakers to harvest ripe grapes
  8. Name 5 students of Emile Peynaud
    • Jean-Claude Berrouet (Petrus)
    • Patrick Leon (Mouton Rothschild)
    • Philippe Dhalluin (Branaire-Ducru, Mouton)
    • Jacques Boissenot
    • Michel Roland
  9. Who became dean of the College of Oenology after Jean Ribereau-Gayon?
    Pascal Ribereau-Gayon (his son)
  10. What is Yves Glories known for?
    • Dean of the College of Oenology after Pascal Ribereau-Gayon
    • Research in tannins and anthocyanins
    • Developed "Glories method" to determine optimum grape maturity... not just phenolic ripeness but also EXTRACTABILITY of tannins
  11. How did Gerard Seguin influence modern winemaking?
    • 1986: Published "Terroirs" and pedology (soil study) of wine growing
    • No correlation between quality of wine and soil content
    • What is important is the manner in which a soil type makes water available to the vine
  12. How did Denis Dubourdieu influence modern winemaking?
    • Research of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (wine yeast)
    • New style Bordeaux WHITE winemaking (adoption of prefermentation maceration ("cold soaking" for skin contact) and aging on lees)
    • Dourthe ("DOORth") asked him why Bordeaux whites had short shelf life... result was "Dourthe No. 1" in 1988
  13. Name 3 properties owned by Denis Dubourdieu (consulting oenologist)
    • Chateau Doisy Daene (Sauternes)
    • Chateau Reynon (his home... near Cadillac)
    • Clos Foridene (Graves)
  14. Name 2 famous students of Emile Peynaud
    • Jacques Boissenot (left bank consulting oenologist)

    • Michel Rolland (home base is right bank but he's known as a flying oenologist as he advises over 100 properties around the world)
  15. What practices does Jacques Boissenot subscribe to?
    • "Classic style": wine tells him what it should be
    • Co-innoculation (simultaneous alcoholic and malolactic fermentation)
    • Not a fan of micro-oxygenation (or most other new trends)
  16. What practices does Michel Rolland subscribe to?
    • Major innovation: pick ripe grapes (famous for saying "wait")
    • Enthusiastic employer of new technolgies and techniques:
    • Micro-oxygentation
    • Malolactic fermentation in barrels
    • known for "bodybuilding" wines
  17. Name 3 innovative winemakers that break with tradition
    • Stephane Derenoncourt: autodidact (self-taught)

    • Jean-Luc Thunevin: no background in wine but became a negociant and created Chateau Valandraud

    • Gerard Perse: no background in wine but bought Chateau Monbusquet and Pavie
  18. What practices does Stephane Derenoncourt favor?
    • whole-berry fermentation
    • aging on lees and battongage
    • micro-oxygenation
    • organic and biodynamic
  19. What practices does Jean-Luc Thunevin favor?
    • Unheard of small yields and hand-made production methods
    • Does not use "cutting-edge" winemaking - father of "garage wines"
  20. What practices does Gerard Perse favor?
    • Halved Pavie's yeilds to 28-30 hl/ha per Michel Rolland which changed Pavie's character (controversial)
    • Large-scale "garage" winemaking (wealthy since sold Continent, a large French grocery store chain)
    • Raised Monbusquet (on sandy river plain) to Grand Cru Classe and Pavie to Premier Grand Cru Classe A

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Tradition and Transition
2013-12-01 15:52:35
FWS Bordeaux

FWS Master Level
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