Tradition and Transition
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Describe a genealogy of Bordeaux winemakers
Name 4 of Bordeaux's innovations in winemaking
- 17C: Use of sulfuring barrels by Dutch
- 19C: Invention of Bordeaux mixture (copper-sulphite CuSO4 + slaked lime Ca(OH)2 preventative fungicide)
- 20C: Discovery how malolactic fermentation works
- 1962: Haut-Brion introduces use of stainless steel vats (from dairy industry)
Who invented the Bordeaux mixture?
- Alexis Millardet (inventor)
- Ulysse Gayon (organizer)
Who was Ulysse Gayon? ("YOU-LEASE")
- Student of Louis Pasteur
- 1880: establishes Agronomy and Oenology Station;
- 1916: station becomes part of University of Bordeaux (now called College of Oenology)
- 1896: publishes findings from his lab at Lafite
Name 3 findings of Ulysse Gayon now considered basic tenants of winemaking
- high temperatures should be avoided during fermentation (kills yeast)
- exposing wine to air during pumping over should be encouraged (helps yeast)
- after 4 days in vats, significant amounts of bacteria begin to develop
Name 2 famous students of Bordeaux's College of Oenology
- Jean Ribereau-Gayon (grandson of Ullysse Gayon)
- Emile Paynaud (protege of Jean)
What is Emile Peynaud known for?
- 1950s: Begins consulting for chateaux
- Establishes consulting oenologist as we know it today
- 1960s: explains how malolactic fermentation works
- 1923-1995: Published 290 research papers and books (e.g., The Taste of Wine)
- Crowning achievement: Getting winemakers to harvest ripe grapes
Name 5 students of Emile Peynaud
- Jean-Claude Berrouet (Petrus)
- Patrick Leon (Mouton Rothschild)
- Philippe Dhalluin (Branaire-Ducru, Mouton)
- Jacques Boissenot
- Michel Roland
Who became dean of the College of Oenology after Jean Ribereau-Gayon?
Pascal Ribereau-Gayon (his son)
What is Yves Glories known for?
- Dean of the College of Oenology after Pascal Ribereau-Gayon
- Research in tannins and anthocyanins
- Developed "Glories method" to determine optimum grape maturity... not just phenolic ripeness but also EXTRACTABILITY of tannins
How did Gerard Seguin influence modern winemaking?
- 1986: Published "Terroirs" and pedology (soil study) of wine growing
- No correlation between quality of wine and soil content
- What is important is the manner in which a soil type makes water available to the vine
How did Denis Dubourdieu influence modern winemaking?
- Research of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (wine yeast)
- New style Bordeaux WHITE winemaking (adoption of prefermentation maceration ("cold soaking" for skin contact) and aging on lees)
- Dourthe ("DOORth") asked him why Bordeaux whites had short shelf life... result was "Dourthe No. 1" in 1988
Name 3 properties owned by Denis Dubourdieu (consulting oenologist)
- Chateau Doisy Daene (Sauternes)
- Chateau Reynon (his home... near Cadillac)
- Clos Foridene (Graves)
Name 2 famous students of Emile Peynaud
- Jacques Boissenot (left bank consulting oenologist)
- Michel Rolland (home base is right bank but he's known as a flying oenologist as he advises over 100 properties around the world)
What practices does Jacques Boissenot subscribe to?
- "Classic style": wine tells him what it should be
- Co-innoculation (simultaneous alcoholic and malolactic fermentation)
- Not a fan of micro-oxygenation (or most other new trends)
What practices does Michel Rolland subscribe to?
- Major innovation: pick ripe grapes (famous for saying "wait")
- Enthusiastic employer of new technolgies and techniques:
- Malolactic fermentation in barrels
- known for "bodybuilding" wines
What practices does Stephane Derenoncourt favor?
- whole-berry fermentation
- aging on lees and battongage
- organic and biodynamic
What practices does Jean-Luc Thunevin favor?
- Unheard of small yields and hand-made production methods
- Does not use "cutting-edge" winemaking - father of "garage wines"
What practices does Gerard Perse favor?
- Halved Pavie's yeilds to 28-30 hl/ha per Michel Rolland which changed Pavie's character (controversial)
- Large-scale "garage" winemaking (wealthy since sold Continent, a large French grocery store chain)
- Raised Monbusquet (on sandy river plain) to Grand Cru Classe and Pavie to Premier Grand Cru Classe A
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