med vocab ch 16.txt

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med vocab ch 16.txt
2013-11-15 12:14:30

med vocab 16
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  1. ablat/o
    to take away
  2. bi/o
  3. cancer/o, carcin/o
  4. chem/o
    chemical, drug
  5. cry/o
  6. cyt/o
  7. kary/o
  8. lapar/o
  9. lei/o
  10. leuk/o
  11. melan/o
    black, dark
  12. onc/o
  13. path/o
  14. plas/o
    growth, formation
  15. radi/o
    x-rays, radiation
  16. rhabd/o
    striated muscle
  17. sarc/o
    connective tissue, flesh
  18. squam/o
    scalelike structure
  19. dys-
    painful, difficult, abnormal
  20. intra-
  21. mal-
    bad, poor
  22. meta-
    change, beyond
  23. neo-
  24. para-
  25. trans-
    across, through
  26. -gen
    origin, production
  27. -genic
    originating, producing
  28. -oma
  29. -opsy
    process of viewing
  30. -scopy
    process of examining, examination
  31. Benign
    nonmalignant form of a neoplasm
  32. Cancer (CA)
    general term for a group of diseases characterized by an abnormal, uncontrolled growth of cells
  33. Cancerous
    pertaining to cancer
  34. Carcinogen
    any cancer-causing substance or organism
  35. Differentiation
    determination of how developed, or mature, the cancer cells are in a tumor
  36. Dysplasia
    abnormal growth of tissue
  37. in situ
    in the original place or site without any expansion or spread
  38. Invasion
    the direct migration and penetration by cancerous cells into neighboring tissues
  39. Leison
    a pathologic change in tissue resulting from disease or injury
  40. Malignant
    having the properties of locally invasive and destructive growth and metastasis
  41. Metastasis
    spread of a disease process from one part of the body to another
  42. Oncogenes
    mutated forms of genes that cause normal cells to grow out of control and become cancer cells
  43. Oncogenic
    causing or being suitable for the development of a tumor
  44. Recurrence
    the return of cancer after all visible signs of it had been eradicated previously
  45. Remission
    lessening in severity of disease symptoms; the period of time when a cancer is responding to treatment or is under control
  46. Adenocarcinoma
    malignant neoplasm composed of glandular tissue
  47. Adenoma
    benign neoplasm composed of glandular tissue
  48. Carcinoma
    malignant neoplasm of any epithelial tissue
  49. Fibroma
    benign neoplasm of fibrous connective tissue
  50. Fibrosarcoma
    malignant neoplasm of deep fibrous tissue
  51. Lipoma
    benign neoplasm of adipose (fat) tissue
  52. Liposarcoma
    malignant neoplasm of adipose (fat) tissue
  53. Malignant neoplasm
    tumor that invades surrounding tissue and is usually capable of metastasizing; can be located in any organ or tissue in the body
  54. Melanoma
    tumor characterized by a dark appearance; most commonly occurs in the skin or in the eye
  55. Neoplasm, tumor
    abnormal growth of new tissue into a mass; can be benign or malignant
  56. Neuroma
    tumor derived from nervous tissue
  57. Myeloma
    tumor composed of cells derived from bone marrow
  58. Sarcoma
    malignant neoplasm of connective tissue
  59. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC)
    a cancer that begins in the lowest layer of the epidermis of the skin
  60. Kaposi sarcoma
    type of cancer found in the tissues under the skin r mucous membranes that line the mouth, nose, and anus; most commonly seen in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
  61. Melanoma of the skin
    a malignant skin cancer that arises from the melanocytes in the epidermis usually caused by exposure to ultraviolet radiation
  62. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)
    a cancer that begins in the squamous cells located in the upper levels of the epidermis of the skin
  63. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST)
    a very rare cancer affecting the digestive tract or nearby structures within the abdomen
  64. Malignant neoplasm of the bladder
    cancerous tumor of the bladder
  65. Nephroma
    tumor of the kidney
  66. Urothelial carcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma
    cancer arising in the urothelium lining the urinary tract
  67. Wilms tumor
    rare type of kidney cancer that affects children
  68. Hodgkin disease
    abnormal malignant enlargement of lymph nodes, spleen, and liver; indicated by the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells
  69. Leukemia
    cancer of the blood indicated by malignant increase in the number of white blood cells
  70. Lymphangioma
    mass or tumor of lymph vessels
  71. Lymphoma
    tumor of lymphoid tissue, including lymphocytes and plasma cells
  72. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL)
    lymphoma other than Hodgkin disease
  73. Bronchogenic carcinoma
    carcinoma that arises from the mucosa of the large bronchi
  74. Mesothelioma
    a carcinoma of the mesothelium liming of the lungs or heart, usually associated with exposure to asbestos dust
  75. Oat cell carcinoma
    highly malignant form of lung or bronchogenic cancer in which cells appear small and rounded under a microscope
  76. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)
    a breast cancer that is confined to the ducts and has not spread into the tissue of the breast
  77. Germ cell tumor
    cancer that begins in the egg-producing cells of the ovaries
  78. Stromal cell tumor
    cancer that begins in the cells of the ligaments of the ovaries
  79. Astrocytoma
    a tumor that arises from small, star-shaped cells in the brain and spinal cord
  80. Glioma
    cancer that arises from the glial cells of the nervous system
  81. Medulloblastoma
    cancer that develops from the primitive nerve cells in the cerebellum
  82. Meningioma
    benign and slow-growing tumor of the meninges
  83. Neuroblastoma
    a cancer of the nervous system
  84. Glomus tumor
    a benign but locally invasive tumor arising out of glomus tissue found in the middle ear, jugular bulb, and carotid artery
  85. Intraocular melanoma
    a malignant cancer that forms in the tissues of the eye
  86. Retinoblastoma
    a malignant ocular tumor of retinal cells
  87. Chondroma
    a common benign tumor arising from cartilage cells
  88. Chondrosarcoma
    a large malignant tumor arising from cartilage cells
  89. Ewing tumor, Ewing sarcoma
    a malignant tumor found in bone or soft tissue
  90. Giant cell tumor
    a tumor of the tendon sheath that can be either benign or malignant
  91. Leiomyoma
    benign tumor of smooth (nonstriated) muscle
  92. Leiomyosarcoma
    malignant tumor of smooth (nonstriated) muscle
  93. Liposarcoma
    a malignant tumor of adipose (fat) tissue; occurs in the retroperitoneal tissues and the thigh
  94. Osteofibroma
    benign leison of bone consisting chiefly of fairly dense, moderately cellular, fibrous connective tissue
  95. Osteosarcoma
    a fast-growing malignant type of bone cancer that develops in the osteoblast cells that form the outer covering of bone
  96. Rhabdomyoma
    benign tumor of striated muscle
  97. Rhabdomyosarcoma
    a highly malignant tumor of striated muscle
  98. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN)
    a group of disorders characterized by functioning tumors in more than one endocrine gland
  99. Pheochromocytoma
    a vascular tumor of the adrenal gland
  100. Pituitary adenoma
    a benign tumor arising in the pituitary gland
  101. Alpha fetoprotein (AFP)
    blood test for substance produced by tumor cells in the body; found in elevated levels in patients with ovarian cancer
  102. Estrogen receptors
    blood test for a type of protein present on some breast cancer cells to which estrogen attaches
  103. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) test
    blood test for the substance that, in elevated levels, may indicate cancer in the testis, ovary, liver, stomach, pancreas, or lung
  104. Papanicolaou (Pap) test
    microscopic examination of cells collected from the vagina and cervix to detect abnormal changes (e.g. cancer)
  105. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA)
    blood test for substance produced only by the prostate; elevated levels may indicate prostate cancer in its early stages
  106. Tumor marker test
    various blood tests for specific substances produced by certain types of tumors
  107. Biospy
    the process of removing tissue from living patients for diagnostic examination
  108. Fine needle aspiration (FNA)
    procedure of withdrawing cells from a lesion for examination with a fine needle on a syringe
  109. Radionuclide scan
    imaging scan in which a small amount of radioactive substance is injected into the vein; a machine measures levels of radioactivity in certain organs, which may indicate abnormal areas or tumors
  110. Sentinel lymph node biopsy
    removal and examination of the sentinel nodes, which are the first lymph nodes to which cancer cells are likely to spread form a primary tumor
  111. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan
    type of nuclear imaging test that shows how blood flows to tissues and organs; can help identify certain types of tumors
  112. Punch biopsy
    removal of a small oval core of skin for laboratory analysis using a sharp, hollow instrument
  113. Shave biopsy
    removal of a sample of skin for laboratory analysis using a scalpel to slice the specimen from the site
  114. Cholescintigraphy, hepatobiliary iminodiacetic acid (HIDA) scan
    imaging test used to examine the function of the liver, gallbladder, and bile ducts
  115. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)
    procedure using x-ray and injectable dye to examine disorders in the bile ducts, gallbladder, and pancreas
  116. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)
    procedure using an ultrasound imaging device on the tip of an endoscope for evaluation of the bowel wall and adjacent structures
  117. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP)
    procedure using magnetic resonance imaging and an injectabe dye to examine problems in the bile ducts, gallbladder, and pancreas
  118. Lymph node biopsy
    removal of lymph node tissue for pathologic evaluation
  119. Bone marrow aspiration
    removal of a small amount of fluid and cells from inside the bone with a needle and syringe
  120. Bone marrow biopsy
    removal and evaluation of a small amount of bone along with fluid and cells from inside the bone
  121. Lumbar puncture (LP)
    the process of inserting a needle into the subarachnoid space of the lumbar spine to obtain cerebrospinal fluid for analysis; used to determine if leukemic cells are present
  122. Thoracoscopy, pleuroscopy
    endoscopic examination of the thorax made through a small opening in the chest
  123. Prostate biopsy
    a procedure in which tissue samples are removed from the body for examination under a microscope to determine whether cancerous or other abnormal cells are present
  124. Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)
    ultrasound imaging of the prostate done through the rectum; used to diagnose prostate cancer
  125. Cervical conization, cone biopsy
    biopsy of the cervix in which a cone-shaped sample of tissue is removed from the cervix
  126. Colposcopy
    visual examination of the tissues of the cervix and vagina using a lighted microscope (colposcope) to identify abnormal cell growth, and if necessary, remove a tissue sample for biopsy
  127. Endometrial biopsy
    procedure whereby a sample of the endometrium of the uterus is removed from the body and examined under a microscope; used to check for uterine cancer
  128. Mammography
    an x-ray examination of the breasts; used to detect breast tumors
  129. Brachytherapy, seed implantation
    procedure whereby radioactive "seeds" are placed inside cancerous tissue and positioned to kill nearby cancer cells
  130. Cryosurgery
    the use of freezing temperatures to destroy tissue
  131. Debulking surgery
    excision of a major part of a tumor that cannot be completely removed
  132. Palliative surgery
    surgery that is performed to relieve pain or other symptoms but not to cure the cancer or prolong a patient's life
  133. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA)
    procedure in which a surgical oncologist uses a small probe to deliver heat from radiofrequency energy to kill cancerous tissue; used primarily to treat liver, prostate, renal, bone, and breast cancer
  134. Reconstructive surgery
    surgery performed to return function and appearance to a specific area of the body after removal of a tumor
  135. Mohs surgery
    surgical procedure that involves removing and remaining a piece of tumor in the skin bit by bit until the entire lesion is removed
  136. Colectomy
    excision of all or part of the colon
  137. Esophagectomy
    excision of the diseased portion of the esophagus and all associated tissues that might contain cancer
  138. Gastrectomy, Billroth operation I and II
    excision of part or all of the stomach
  139. Pancreaticoduodenectomy, Whipple operation
    partial excision of the stomach, complete excision of the gallbladder, a portion of the bile duct, head of the pancreas, portions of the small intestine, and regional lymph nodes to stop the spread of cancer in these areas
  140. Cystectomy
    surgical removal of part or all of the bladder
  141. Fulguration
    destruction of tissue by means of high-frequency electric current; commonly used to remove tumors from inside the bladder
  142. Nephrectomy
    excision of a kidney
  143. Transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURB)
    excision of a tumor from the bladder through the urethra using a resectoscope
  144. Lymphadenectomy
    excision of a lymph node
  145. Bone marrow transplant (BMIT)
    transfer of bone marrow from one person to another
  146. Peripheral stem cell transplant
    the collection and freezing of stem cells from the blood, which are then reintroduced into the patient after chemotherapy
  147. Lobectomy
    excision of a lobe (of the lung)
  148. Pneumonectomy
    excision of the lung
  149. Wedge resection
    excision of part of a lube of the lung
  150. Prostatectomy, transurethral resection of the prostate (TRUP)
    removal of prostate tissue through the urethra using a resectoscope
  151. Loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP)
    gynecologic procedure that uses a thin, low-voltage electrified wire loop to cute out cancerous tissue in the cervix
  152. Mastectomy
    excision of a breast to remove a malignant tumor
  153. Modified radical mastectomy
    excision of a breast along with some of the underlying muscle and lymph nodes in the adjacent armpit
  154. Radical mastectomy
    excision of the breast as well as the underlying muscles and lymph nodes int he adjacent armpit
  155. Simple mastectomy
    excision of a breast, leaving the underlying muscles and the lymph nodes intact
  156. Myomectomy
    excision of myomas
  157. Craniectomy
    excision of part of the cranium to access the brain
  158. Stereotactic radiosurgery
    radiation therapy technique for treating brain tumors by aiming high-dose radiation beams directly at the tumors
  159. Enucleation
    removal of an eyeball
  160. Iridectomy
    excision of part of the iris (for very small melanomas)
  161. Laryngectomy
    excision of all or part of the larynx, usually to treat cancer of the larynx
  162. Amputation
    surgical removal of an entire limb
  163. Limb salvage surgery
    surgical procedure in which only the cancerous section of bone is removed but nearby muscles, tendons and other structures are left intact
  164. Parathyroidectomy
    excision of a parathyroid gland
  165. Thyroidectomy
    excision of the thyroid gland
  166. Transspenoidal resection
    excision of a pituitary adenoma by making an incision through the nose to the bottom of the skull where the pituitary gland is located
  167. External beam radiation
    procedure by which a beam of high-energy radiation is applied externally directly to the tumor to minimize damage to other tissues
  168. Radiation therapy
    the use of high-energy x-rays or other particles to kill cancer cells
  169. Aromatase inhibitors
    group of drugs designed to reduce estrogen levels in a woman's body and stop the growth of cancer cells that depend on estrogen to live and grow
  170. Chemoprevention
    the use of natural or synthetic products to keep cancer at bay or to stop the disease process before it becomes invasive
  171. Chemotherapy
    regimen of therapy that uses chemicals to treat cancer
  172. Adjuvant chemotherapy
    chemotherapy given in addition to surgery, to destroy remaining residual tumor or to reduce the risk of recurrence
  173. Intersitial chemotherapy
    placement of chemotherapy drugs directly into a tumor
  174. Intrathecal chemotherapy
    delivery of chemotherapy drugs into the spinal canal
  175. Palliative chemotherapy
    chemotherapy that is given to relieve pain or other symptoms of cancer but not to cure it
  176. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor therapy
    drugs that interfere with the growth of individual cancer cells
  177. Hormone therapy
    use of hormones to stop a tumor from growing, to relieve symptoms caused by a tumor, or to replace the hormone that is needed by the body to function properly after a body part is removed due to cancer
  178. Immunotherapy, biologic therapy
    method of boosting the body's natural defenses to fight cancer by using materials made either by the body or in a laboratory to bolster, target, or restore immune system function
  179. Gynecologic oncology
    medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of cancers of the female reproductive system
  180. Gyneocologic oncologist
    physician who specializes in the care and treatment of women with gynecologic cancers
  181. Medical oncology
    medical specialty concerned with the use of medical and chemotherapeutic treatments of cancer
  182. Medical oncologist
    physician who specializes in treating cancer with chemotherapy
  183. Oncology
    medical specialty concerned with the physical, chemical, and biologic properties and features of cancers
  184. Oncologist
    physician who specializes in the science of oncology
  185. Pediatric oncology
    medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment childhood cancers and blood diseases
  186. Pediatric oncologist
    physician who specializes in the treatment of childhood cancers and blood diseases
  187. Radiation oncology
    medical specialty concerned with radiation treatment as the main mode of treatment of cancer
  188. Radiation oncologist
    physician who specializes in treating cancer with high-energy x-rays to destroy cancerous cells
  189. Surgical oncology
    surgical specialty concerned with the surgical aspects of cancer
  190. Surgical oncologist
    physician who specializes in the surgical aspects of cancer, including biopsy and tumor staging and resection
  191. AFP
    alpha fetoprotein
  192. BCC
    basal cell carcinoma
  193. BMT
    bone marrow transplant
  194. CA
  195. DCIS
    ductal carcinoma in situ
  196. EGFR
    epidermal growth factor receptor
  197. ERCP
    endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
  198. EUS
    endoscopic ultrasound
  199. FNA
    fine needle aspiration
  200. GIST
    gastrointestinal stromal tumor
  201. hCG
    human chorionic gonadotropin
  202. HIDA
    hepatobiliary iminodiacetic acid
  203. LEEP
    loop electrosurgical excision procedure
  204. LP
    lumbar puncture
  205. MEN
    multiple endocrine neoplasia
  206. MRCP
    magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography
  207. NHL
    non-Hodgkin lymphoma
  208. PSA
    prostate-specific antigen
  209. RFA
    radiofrequency ablation
  210. SCC
    squamous cell carcinoma
  211. SPECT
    single photon emission computed tomography
  212. TRUS
    transrectal ultrasound
  213. TURB
    transurethral resection of bladder tumor
  214. TURP
    transurethral resection of prostate