Bio 502, Fall 2016, Lecture 16: Vertebral cord & column an intrinsic back

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Bio 502, Fall 2016, Lecture 16: Vertebral cord & column an intrinsic back
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2016-11-17 19:41:19
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Vertebral cord vertebral column
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Vertebral cord, vertebral column
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  1. How many vertebrae are there in the back and why does the number vary?
    There are 32-33 vertebrae. It is a variable number because the number of coccygeal vertebrae is variable (3-4)
  2. Which vertebrae have the largest vertebral bodies and why?
    The lumbar vertebrae have the largest vertebral bodies because as the most inferior vertebrae, they have the most upper body weight to bear.
  3. True or false (if false, provide the correct information):
    The intervertebral foramina are formed by the superior and inferior vertebral notches of the laminae, and are bounded by the ligament flava of each vertebrae.
    FALSE: the foramina are formed by the vertebral notches of the pedicles and the ligament flava participates in the formation of the posterior wall of the vertebral canal, not the intervertebral notches.
  4. Explain the relationship between the supraspinous ligament and the ligamentum nuchae.
    The ligamentum nuchae is the superior portion of the supraspinous ligament. It runs from the external occipital protuberance down to the spinous process of CVII and sends fibers anteriorly to attach to the spinous processes of the other cervical vertebrae. The supraspinous ligament runs from CVII down to the sacrum, attaching to the spinous processes of the associated vertebrae.
  5. Where are the alar ligaments located and what are their functions?
    The alar ligaments attach to the apex of the dens. They run laterally and attach somewhere along the foramen magnum, though the exact location is variable. They function to check rotation of the head on the dens.
  6. What two factors provide "easy access" to the spinal canal and where is access the "easiest"?
    The fact that the posterior intervertebral spaces increase in size among the lumbar vertebrae  and the fact that the spinal cord is relatively shorter than the vertebral canal (the cord ends around LII) together facilitate "easy" access to the spinal canal in the lumbar region.
  7. Describe the structural differences between the posterior atlanto-occipital membrane and the posterior longitdinal ligament.
    The posterior atlanto-occipital membrane is the posterior support structure of the atlanto-occipital joint. Because it supports the joint, it is located on the posterior surface of the skull and spine, running from the posterior foramen magnum to the posterior surface of CI. The posterior longitudinal ligament supports the bodies of the spinal column and is located anterior to the posterior atlanto-occipital membrane, on the posterior surface of the bodies, connecting to the intervertebral discs, as well. It starts at CII and runs inferiorly to the posterior sacrum
  8. Trace the blood supply of the anterior spinal root of L3 back to the left atrium, including the names of passageways AND valves, if necessary (some of this information is from a blue slide, but see if you can do it anyway)
    anterior spinal root, L3 / anterior radicular artery / segmental spinal artery / (3rd) lumbar artery / abdominal aorta / thoracic aorta / arch of the aorta /ascending aorta (through aortic valve) / left ventricle / bicuspid valve, through left atrioventricular orifice / left atrium
  9. Derive the right posterior spinal artery back to the arch of the aorta.
    R posterior spinal artery / R posterior inferior cerebellar artery / R vertebral artery / R subclavian, 1st part / Brachiocephalic trunk / arch of the aorta
  10. When might serratus posterior superior be active during breathing and why?
    Serratus posterior superior may be active during both inhalation and exhalation because all of the muscles operating on the ribs participate in altering the volume of the thorax, regardless of whether you are breathing in or out. However, it may be more active during inhalation because it functions to move ribs 2-5 superiorly and during inhalation these ribs move in a superior (and lateral) direction.
  11. For the following question, select:
    a) if 1 is true
    b) if 1 and 2 are true
    c) if 1 - 3 are true
    d) if 2 - 4 are true
    e) if all are true
    f) if all are false

    1) atlas does not have a vertebral body
    2) the dens is the axis of rotation for the head
    3) neither atlas nor axis have formaina transversarium
    4) the intervertebral disc between atlas and axis is actually located between the dens of axis and the posterior margin of the anterior surface of atlas
    5) The joint between atlas and axis is regarded as one of the four synovial joints with external cranial bones.
    B
  12. For the following question, select:
    a) if 1 is true
    b) if 2 and 3 are true
    c) if 1 - 3 are true
    d) if all are true
    e) if all are false

    1) each vertebral arch is made up of one pedicle and one lamina
    2) the spinous processes are the projections of the union of the laminae
    3) the transverse processes are the projections of the unions of one pedicle and one laminae
    4) the space between the alar ligaments and the transverse ligament of atlas is regarded as the intervertebral foramen of CI.
    c
  13. For the following question, select:
    a) if 1 is true
    b) if 1 and 2 are true
    c) if 1 - 3 are true
    d) if 2 - 4 are true
    e) if all are true
    f) if all are false

    1) Joints between adjacent vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs are not considered symphyses because this type of joint only occurs in the head and pelvis
    2) the only synovial joints occurring between vertebrae are between atlas and axis
    3) the anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments are of equal length and width
    4) the joint between atlas and the condyles of the occipital bone was selected for limited extension and flexion
    F
  14. True or false (if false, provide the correct information):

    The spinal meninges are continuous with the cranial meninges, but each layer splits into two layers within the skull.
    FALSE: All three layers are continuous, but only the dura mater splits into two layers within the skull.
  15. Describe the origin of the internal obliques and transverse abdominis muscles as it relates to the thoracolumbar fascia.
    The thoracolumbar fascia exists as three distinct layers in the lumbar region. The anterior and middle layers enclose the lumbar aspects of the quadratus lumborum muscle and the middle and posterior layers enclose the lumbar portion of the erector spinae muscle. All three layers unite laterally and form the aponeurotic tendon of origin of transverse abdominis and internal obliques (as well as latissimus dorsi and part of the origin of the common tendon of erector spinae).
  16. True or false (if false, provide the correct information):
    Splenius cervicis can act directly on the head in extension.
    FALSE. Cervicis interts into the transverse processes of CI-CIII and does not reach the head. Therefore it acts directly on the neck. But logically, if the neck is extending, the head will extend, as well.
  17. True or false (if false, provide the correct information):
    Iliocostalis cervicis is the primary muscle group within erector spinae responsible for extension of the cervical spine.
    FALSE. Iliocostalis does not have a cervical muscle group. Longissimus cervicis is the erector muscle group primarily responsible for extension of the cervical spine (because spinalis cervicis is deficient to the point of being non-functional)

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