BI 121

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BI 121
2013-11-17 14:04:29
nervous system lab

structure and function
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  1. central nervous system (CNS)
    • 1. consist of brain and spinal cord
    • 2. responsible for integrating, process and and coordinating sensory
  2. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
    includes all the NEURAL TISSUE outside (CNS)
  3. neuron
    a cell in NEUARL TISSUE that's specialized for INTERRCELLULAR COMMUNICATION through

    • 1. changes of memebrane
    • 2. synaptic connections
  4. neuroglial/glial cells
    cells of of CNS and PNS that:

    SUPPORT & PROTECT neurons
  5. cell body
    contains the nucleus and other organelles
  6. nucleus
    a cellular organelle that contains DNA, RNA and proteins int the CNS , a mass of gray matter
  7. process
    any projection/bump
  8. axon
    carries into toward other cells
  9. collateral branch
    enables a single neuron to communicate with several other cells

    * side branches produce by axons
  10. dendrite
    receive stimuli from the environment/from other neurons
  11. sypnaptic (axon) terminals
    where neuron communicates with other cells
  12. sypnatic cleft
    a narrow space seperating the two cells
  13. schwann cell
    form a sheath around peripheral axons

    *wherever a schwann cell covers an axon, the outer surface of schwann cell is called the NEURILEMMA
  14. myelinated fiber (myelin)
    a membranous wrapping that coats axons and increases the speed of NERVE IMPULSE TRANSMISSION
  15. node
    small gaps of a few MICROMETERS that separate adjacent internodes
  16. astrocyte
    maintain the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER that isolate the CNS from the chemicals and HOMRMONES circulation in the blood


    • structural support with NEURAL TISSUE
    • regulate ion, nutrient and disolved gas concentrations in the INTERSTITIAL FLUID surrounding the neurons
  17. unipolar neuron
    dendrites and axon: continuous-fused-and cell body lies off to one side

    *most sensory neurons of PNS are unipolar8

    -longest are those carrying sensations from the tips of the TOES to the SPINAL CORD
  18. bipolar neuron
    • have 2 distinct processes-
    • 1 dendritic process that branches extensively at its distal tip,
    • and one axon-with the cell body between the 2

    • -rare but occur in special sense organs 
    • (where they relay into about SIGHT, SMELL,HEARING) from receptor cells to other neurons
  19. multipolar neuron
    have 2/more dendrites and a SINGLE axon

    *most common neurons that contral skeletal muscles*

    • -as long as unipolar neurons
    • the longest carry motor commands from SPINAL to small muscles that move the TOES
  20. sensory (afferent) neuron
    • efferent
    • carry implulse to CNS
    • most are unipolar
    • some are bipolar
  21. motor (efferent)
    • multipolar
    • carry impulses AWAY from CNS
    • carry impules to effectors
  22. association neuron/interneuron
    • link neurons
    • multipolar
    • in CNS
  23. endoneurium
    INNERMOST layers consists of delicate CONNEECTIVE tissues that extend from the perineurium and SURROUND individual axons
  24. perineurium
    the MIDDLE layer, extend INWARD from the the epineurium

    *CONNECTIVE tissue partitions divide the nerve into a series of compartments that contain bundles of axon/fascicles
  25. fascicle
    connective tissue partitions that divide nerve into a series of compartments that contain budles from PERIMIUM
  26. epineurium
    outermost covering of the nerve, consist of a DENSE network of COLLAGEN fibers
  27. sensory (afferent) neurons
    • carry impulse to CNS
    • most are unipolar
    • some are bipolar
  28. motor neurons
    • multipolar
    • carry impulses AWAY from CNS
    • carry impulses to EFFECTORS
  29. meninges
    3 membranes that surround the surfaces of the CNS

    • 1. duramater
    • 2. pia mater
    • 3. arachnoid
  30. dura mater
    • OUTTERMOST component of the cranial and spinal meninges
  31. I

    -Sensory Smell (olfaction)
  32. II

  33. III

    • *Motor
    • movement of 4 extrinsic eye muscles (IO,MR,SR,IR)
  34. IV

    • Motor
    • -Eye movement of Superior oblique extrinsic eye muscle
  35. V

    • sensory to FACE
    • motor to muscles of mastication
  36. VI

    • *Motor
    • -Eye movement – lateral (peripheral)Looking left (VI for the L eye and III for the R)
  37. VII

    • *Sensory portion
    • -Taste anterior 2/3 tongue
    • -Motor portion
    •      -Important
    •      -Muscles of facial expression
    •      -Especially muscles that move lips and         firm cheeks
    • -VI and VII travel close together
  38. VIII

    • Hearing
    • equilibrium
  39. IX

    • motor to pharyngeal muscles
    • taste posterior 1/3 tongue
  40. X

    • Motor to thoracic and abdominal viscera
    • taste from phrarnx
  41. XI
    Spinal Accessory

    Motor to neck muscles (trapezius, SCM)
  42. XII

    Motor to tonugue muscles
  43. O.O.O.T.T.A.F.V.F.V.A.H
    • Oh Once One Takes The Anatomy Final,
    • Very Good Vacations Are Here.
  44. olfactory bulb

    -Expanded anterior end of olfactory tract
    -Site of synapse for olfactory neurons (CN I) after their axons pass through cribriform plate

    • -Lies on cribriform plate of ethmoid bone in anterior cranial fossa
    • -Ventral aspect of frontal lobe of brain
  45. olfactory tract

    Bundles of afferent and efferent axons

    • -Ventral aspect of frontal lobe
    • -Between olfactory bulb and medial aspect of temporal lobe
  46. mixed nerves:

    and motor
    V:      Trigeminal

    VII:   Facial

    IX:     Glossopharyngeal

    X:     Vagus
  47. formula to remember the nerve supply to extrinsic eye muscles
    (SO4) (LR6)3