Final Quiz first Semester

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  1. Four Functions of nervous system
    • 1 Sense changes inside and outside the body
    • 2 Integrates the information 
    • 3 Helps maintain the internal environment w/in the limits required by cells 
    • 4 Acts by affecting muscular contractions or glandular secretions
  2. Neural tissue specialized for....
    Conducting electrical impulses form one place to another.
  3. This tissue that holds the brain and spinal cord together form nervous system
    Neural tissue
  4. The peripheral nervous system includes ....
    cranial nerves arising from the brain and spinal nerves that emerge from the spinal cord.
  5. Describe a neuron,
    • Highly specialized for conducting nerve impulses 
    • Have limited capacity for replacement or repair
    • Include the longest cells in the body- up to a meter long
  6. Describe a neuroglia
    • Provide nutrients and supporting framework for neurons 
    • do not conduct nerve impulses 
    • can divide -brain tumors are commonly derived from them
  7. 4 parts of a cell
    • the soma
    • dendrites
    • an axon
    • synaptic end bulbs
  8. Describe and say purpose of synaptic end bulbs
    bulb like structures at distal end of axon terminals, have storage sacs called synaptic vesicles ( contain nerotransmitters)
  9. What is a myelin sheath
    Is a multilayered covering of many axons, especially large peripheral ones, that increases the efficiency of a nerve conduction
  10. Where and what are schwann cells
    are neuroglia in the peripheral nervous system, that are associated with neurons and produce the myelin sheath
  11. In the central nervous system what are the neuroglial cells that produce the sheath
  12. Neurofibral node =
    Unmyelinated gap between segments of myelin sheath
  13. What and why does multiple sclerosis (MS) occur signs of it ?
    progressive destruction of myelin sheaths of neuron in CNS, slows ans short circuits nerve impulses. May be started by virus. characterized by attacks and remissions but progressive loss of functions
  14. Grey matter is where and what ?
    In CNS and neural ganglia = nonmyelinated nerve tissue
  15. White Matter where and what ?
    bundles of myelinated axons in brain and spinal cord
  16. Multipolar neurons
    have several dendrites, one axon includes most of the neurons in brain and spinal cord
  17. Bipolar neurons
    one dendrite one axon. found in the retina of the eye in the inner ear and area of the brain involved with a sense of smell.
  18. Unipolar neurons four pieces of info
    • only one process from cell body
    • start as bipolar but fuse into a process 
    • their dendrites monitor sensory stimuli such as touch or pain
    • send action potentials to the CNS
  19. Synapse
    gap between neurons
  20. presynapitic neuron
    the cell before the gap
  21. postsynaptic neuron
    cell after the gap
  22. simple series
    a neuron stimulates or inhibits only one neuron
  23. Diverging circuit
    a neuron stimulates or inhibits several neurons
  24. Converging circuit
    a postsynaptic neuron receives input from different sources
  25. Reverberating circuits
    circular stimulation, may be involved in grand mal epileptic convulsions
  26. Parallel after-discharge circuits
    different paths allow different delays before impulses reach a particular neuron. Postsynaptic neuron can send out a rapid series of impulses. May be involved in making mathematical calculations
  27. four brain functions
    • registers sensations 
    • correlates and stores information 
    • center for intellect emotions behavior memory 
    • directs activities of body parts
  28. Adult brain has ______ neurons
    100 billion
  29. adult brain has _____ neroglia
    1000 billion
  30. How does the spinal cord relate to the Brain stem
    it is continuous and attached
  31. How many regions does the brain steam have and what are they
    3 medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain
  32. Medulla Oblongata does what
    extends about an inch superiorly from the foraman magnum. Has centers that regulate heartbeat breathing swallowing vomiting coughing sneezing
  33. Pons what does is do
    about one inch long name means bridge connects various regions of the brain
  34. Where is the diencephalon
    is located superior to the brain steam.
  35. Two main parts of the diencephalon
    Thalamus Hypothalamus
  36. thalamus makes up ____ of the diencephlon
  37. What is the thalamus
    is a principal relay station to cerebral cortex
  38. what does the hypothalamus do ?
    • regulates body temperature 
    • food intake
    • thirst
    • produces important hormones
  39. what does it mean when the hypothalamus is involved with the biological clock
    sleep cycles and breeding cycles
  40. hypothalamus functions in smell.... especially..?
    emotional reactions to smell, and all around awareness
  41. cerebellum is the _____ largest part of the brain
  42. where is the cerebellum located
    posterior or the brain stem
  43. What is the cerebellum involved in ?
    posture balance and coordination of muscle activities
  44. what is the white matter in the cerebellum called ?
    arbor vitae
  45. Cerebrum is the ____ part of the brain
  46. Cerebrum spreads over what? like a cap of a mushroom
  47. What are the right and left halves of the cerebrum called ?
    cerebral hemispheres
  48. the cerebrum does what for you ? the primary area of what?
    Intelligence ie ability to read, write, speak , calculate, memory, and imagination
  49. the hemispheres of the cerebrum are connected by what ?
    corpus collosum
  50. the folds of the cerebrum are called?
    the gyri
  51. the deepest groves in the gyri are called ?
  52. the sallow cerebrum folds are called
  53. the longitudinal fissure separates the
  54. each cerebrum hemisphere has ____ lobes and name them
    4 , frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal
  55. the central sulcus separates the ____ and ____ lobe
    frontal and parietal
  56. the primary motor area is ____ to the central sulcus
  57. the primary somatosensory area is ____ to the central sulcus
  58. the sizes of areas devoted to various body parts are devoted to _____ not the size of the body part.
    amount of the nerves there
  59. the primary visual area is the
    occipital lobe
  60. Wernicke's area functions in....
    comprehension of speech and having meaningful speech
  61. Brocas area controls the .....
    flow of wards from brain to the mouth
  62. the brain is surrounded by cranial meninges name them
    • outer- dura mater
    • middle-arachnoid
    • inner- pia mater
  63. an extension of dura mater, the falx cerebri separates what?
    the two sides of the cerebrum
  64. there are extensions in the cranial coverings also separating the hemispheres of the cerebellum and ____
    cerebrum from the cerebellum
  65. what are ventricles
    cavities in the brain
  66. there is a lateral ventricle in each
    cerebral hemisphere
  67. the third ventricle is at the mid-line ____ to the hypothalamus
  68. the ____ ventricle is between the brain the the cerebellum
  69. functions of cerebrospinal fluid (6)
    • suspends the brain 
    • protects against physical injury
    • protects against chemical injury 
    • provides nourishment to neural tissue 
    • removes waste
    • provides a chemical environment that allows accurate neuronal signaling
  70. how is cerebrospinal fluid produced
    by cells covering capillaries of the choroid plexuses in the walls of the ventricles
  71. this is a clear colorless liquid in the brain
    cerebrospinal fluid
  72. the CNS has ___ amount of cerebrospinal fluid
    80-150 ml
  73. where is the cerebrospinal fluid found?
    circulating through the sub arachnoid space and the pia mater and also in the cavities in the brain and spinal cord
  74. what is hydrocephalus ?
    result of excess cerebrospinal fluid
  75. the brain consumes 20% of oxygen used at rest but only____ of body weight
  76. explain the blood-brain barrier
    capillaries in most of the brain are much less permeable than other body capillaries
  77. what is a EEG electroencephalogram
    variations in potential recorded by electrodes on the scalp
  78. Alpha waves ? during
    at rest with eyes closed
  79. Beta waves during?
    during sensory input and mental activity
  80. Theta wave
    seen in children and in adults experiencing emotion stress or disorders of the brain
  81. Delta waves when?
    deep sleep REM
  82. what is REM sleep
    rapid eye movement, dreaming
  83. where is the spinal cord located
    • extends form the medulla oblongata to the superior border to second lumbar vertebra in an adult, farther in infants; 
    • within the vertebral canal of vertebral column
  84. vertebral canal is formed by the ?
    the vertebral foramina of all the vertebrae
  85. What is spinal Bifida
    results from incomplete closure of vertebrae
  86. explain the dura mater
    means outtermost position made of dense irregular connective tissue
  87. Explain arachnoid
    located in the middle the arrangement of collagen and elastic fibers
  88. Pia mater explain
    innermost position, thin connective tissue, adheres to the surface of the spinal cord and brain.
  89. Meningitis is?
    inflammation of the meninges by bacteria or viruses
  90. A cushion of fat and connective tissue for extra protection is located where?
    on the epidural space between the dura mater and the wall of vertebral canal
  91. the spinal cord is ___ in diameter
    3/4 of an inch
  92. the spinal cord has a ______ at the location of nerves carrying signals to and from the arms
    cervical enlargement
  93. the conus medularis in the ____ shaped portion and is _______ to the lumbar enlargement
    cone, inferior
  94. roots of nerves inferior to the conus medularis is called the
    cauda equina
  95. the spinal cord is divided into
    halves by anterior median fissure and posterior median sulcus
  96. The gray matter inside of the cord is shaped like an
  97. The _______ forms the cross bar of the H
    grey commissures
  98. the cell bodies of motor neurons to skeletal muscles are in the ____
    anterior gray horn. (Polio virus can damage the gray horn)
  99. what is in the lateral gray horn?
    cell bodies of motor neurons, smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands
  100. bundles of axons in white matter are called....
  101. Ascending tracts _____ nerve impulses toward the brain
  102. descending tracts carry nerve ______ down the spinal cord
  103. extensive damage at the level of the cervical vertebrae produces
  104. paraplegia is ...
    damage at the lower level of the spinal cord
  105. how can the peripheral nervous system be organized
    by location of nerves, direction that info is carried, or by whether the nerves control voluntary or involuntary activities
  106. how many pairs of cranial nerves
  107. how many spinal nerve pairs
  108. the first cervical spinal nerve is where
    between the atlas and the occipital bone
  109. other spinal nerves emerge through the _____
    intervertebral foramina
  110. __ pairs of cervical spinal nerves
  111. ___ pairs of thoracic nerves
  112. ___ pairs of lumbar AND sacral nerves
  113. ____ pair of coccygeal nerves
  114. Afferent neurons carry information to the
  115. efferent neurons carry information
    away form the CNS
  116. Which nerves are only sensory
    optic olfactory and auditory
  117. Some nerves are mixed nerves give examples
    vagus spinal nerves and their orgins
  118. what is somatic division
    controls the skeletal muscles registers conscious sensory info
  119. What is autonomic division
    controls involuntary activities,
  120. what are the subdivided parts in the autonomic division ?
    Parasympathetic (Feed and breed) , and sympathetic (Fight and flight)
  121. Olfactory nerve
  122. optic nerve
  123. trigeminal nerve
  124. facial
    facial expression saliva and tears
  125. two names for hearing and balance nerves
    auditory and vestibulocochlear
  126. Vagus nerve
    slows the heart rate and stimulates digestion
  127. ______ division motor neurons have a cell body in the CNS and an axon that extends tot he effector
  128. motor pathways have ___ neurons in a series
  129. First neuron in motor pathway extends ...
    to the autonomic ganglion
  130. second neuron in motor pathway describe
    has a cell body in the ganglion and its unmyelinated axon extends to the effector
  131. name some organs that have dual innervation
    heart and pancreas
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Final Quiz first Semester
A and P 205
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