Final Quiz first Semester
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Final Quiz first Semester
A and P 205
Four Functions of nervous system
1 Sense changes inside and outside the body
2 Integrates the information
3 Helps maintain the internal environment w/in the limits required by cells
4 Acts by affecting muscular contractions or glandular secretions
Neural tissue specialized for....
Conducting electrical impulses form one place to another.
This tissue that holds the brain and spinal cord together form nervous system
The peripheral nervous system includes ....
cranial nerves arising from the brain and spinal nerves that emerge from the spinal cord.
Describe a neuron,
Highly specialized for conducting nerve impulses
Have limited capacity for replacement or repair
Include the longest cells in the body- up to a meter long
Describe a neuroglia
Provide nutrients and supporting framework for neurons
do not conduct nerve impulses
can divide -brain tumors are commonly derived from them
4 parts of a cell
synaptic end bulbs
Describe and say purpose of synaptic end bulbs
bulb like structures at distal end of axon terminals, have storage sacs called synaptic vesicles ( contain nerotransmitters)
What is a myelin sheath
Is a multilayered covering of many axons, especially large peripheral ones, that increases the efficiency of a nerve conduction
Where and what are schwann cells
are neuroglia in the peripheral nervous system, that are associated with neurons and produce the myelin sheath
In the central nervous system what are the neuroglial cells that produce the sheath
Neurofibral node =
Unmyelinated gap between segments of myelin sheath
What and why does multiple sclerosis (MS) occur signs of it ?
progressive destruction of myelin sheaths of neuron in CNS, slows ans short circuits nerve impulses. May be started by virus. characterized by attacks and remissions but progressive loss of functions
Grey matter is where and what ?
In CNS and neural ganglia = nonmyelinated nerve tissue
White Matter where and what ?
bundles of myelinated axons in brain and spinal cord
have several dendrites, one axon includes most of the neurons in brain and spinal cord
one dendrite one axon. found in the retina of the eye in the inner ear and area of the brain involved with a sense of smell.
Unipolar neurons four pieces of info
only one process from cell body
start as bipolar but fuse into a process
their dendrites monitor sensory stimuli such as touch or pain
send action potentials to the CNS
gap between neurons
the cell before the gap
cell after the gap
a neuron stimulates or inhibits only one neuron
a neuron stimulates or inhibits several neurons
a postsynaptic neuron receives input from different sources
circular stimulation, may be involved in grand mal epileptic convulsions
Parallel after-discharge circuits
different paths allow different delays before impulses reach a particular neuron. Postsynaptic neuron can send out a rapid series of impulses. May be involved in making mathematical calculations
four brain functions
correlates and stores information
center for intellect emotions behavior memory
directs activities of body parts
Adult brain has ______ neurons
adult brain has _____ neroglia
How does the spinal cord relate to the Brain stem
it is continuous and attached
How many regions does the brain steam have and what are they
3 medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain
Medulla Oblongata does what
extends about an inch superiorly from the foraman magnum. Has centers that regulate heartbeat breathing swallowing vomiting coughing sneezing
Pons what does is do
about one inch long name means bridge connects various regions of the brain
Where is the diencephalon
is located superior to the brain steam.
Two main parts of the diencephalon
thalamus makes up ____ of the diencephlon
What is the thalamus
is a principal relay station to cerebral cortex
what does the hypothalamus do ?
regulates body temperature
produces important hormones
what does it mean when the hypothalamus is involved with the biological clock
sleep cycles and breeding cycles
hypothalamus functions in smell.... especially..?
emotional reactions to smell, and all around awareness
cerebellum is the _____ largest part of the brain
where is the cerebellum located
posterior or the brain stem
What is the cerebellum involved in ?
posture balance and coordination of muscle activities
what is the white matter in the cerebellum called ?
Cerebrum is the ____ part of the brain
Cerebrum spreads over what? like a cap of a mushroom
What are the right and left halves of the cerebrum called ?
the cerebrum does what for you ? the primary area of what?
Intelligence ie ability to read, write, speak , calculate, memory, and imagination
the hemispheres of the cerebrum are connected by what ?
the folds of the cerebrum are called?
the deepest groves in the gyri are called ?
the sallow cerebrum folds are called
the longitudinal fissure separates the
each cerebrum hemisphere has ____ lobes and name them
4 , frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal
the central sulcus separates the ____ and ____ lobe
frontal and parietal
the primary motor area is ____ to the central sulcus
the primary somatosensory area is ____ to the central sulcus
the sizes of areas devoted to various body parts are devoted to _____ not the size of the body part.
amount of the nerves there
the primary visual area is the
Wernicke's area functions in....
comprehension of speech and having meaningful speech
Brocas area controls the .....
flow of wards from brain to the mouth
the brain is surrounded by cranial meninges name them
outer- dura mater
inner- pia mater
an extension of dura mater, the falx cerebri separates what?
the two sides of the cerebrum
there are extensions in the cranial coverings also separating the hemispheres of the cerebellum and ____
cerebrum from the cerebellum
what are ventricles
cavities in the brain
there is a lateral ventricle in each
the third ventricle is at the mid-line ____ to the hypothalamus
the ____ ventricle is between the brain the the cerebellum
functions of cerebrospinal fluid (6)
suspends the brain
protects against physical injury
protects against chemical injury
provides nourishment to neural tissue
provides a chemical environment that allows accurate neuronal signaling
how is cerebrospinal fluid produced
by cells covering capillaries of the choroid plexuses in the walls of the ventricles
this is a clear colorless liquid in the brain
the CNS has ___ amount of cerebrospinal fluid
where is the cerebrospinal fluid found?
circulating through the sub arachnoid space and the pia mater and also in the cavities in the brain and spinal cord
what is hydrocephalus ?
result of excess cerebrospinal fluid
the brain consumes 20% of oxygen used at rest but only____ of body weight
explain the blood-brain barrier
capillaries in most of the brain are much less permeable than other body capillaries
what is a EEG electroencephalogram
variations in potential recorded by electrodes on the scalp
Alpha waves ? during
at rest with eyes closed
Beta waves during?
during sensory input and mental activity
seen in children and in adults experiencing emotion stress or disorders of the brain
Delta waves when?
deep sleep REM
what is REM sleep
rapid eye movement, dreaming
where is the spinal cord located
extends form the medulla oblongata to the superior border to second lumbar vertebra in an adult, farther in infants;
within the vertebral canal of vertebral column
vertebral canal is formed by the ?
the vertebral foramina of all the vertebrae
What is spinal Bifida
results from incomplete closure of vertebrae
explain the dura mater
means outtermost position made of dense irregular connective tissue
located in the middle the arrangement of collagen and elastic fibers
Pia mater explain
innermost position, thin connective tissue, adheres to the surface of the spinal cord and brain.
inflammation of the meninges by bacteria or viruses
A cushion of fat and connective tissue for extra protection is located where?
on the epidural space between the dura mater and the wall of vertebral canal
the spinal cord is ___ in diameter
3/4 of an inch
the spinal cord has a ______ at the location of nerves carrying signals to and from the arms
the conus medularis in the ____ shaped portion and is _______ to the lumbar enlargement
roots of nerves inferior to the conus medularis is called the
the spinal cord is divided into
halves by anterior median fissure and posterior median sulcus
The gray matter inside of the cord is shaped like an
The _______ forms the cross bar of the H
the cell bodies of motor neurons to skeletal muscles are in the ____
anterior gray horn. (Polio virus can damage the gray horn)
what is in the lateral gray horn?
cell bodies of motor neurons, smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands
bundles of axons in white matter are called....
Ascending tracts _____ nerve impulses toward the brain
descending tracts carry nerve ______ down the spinal cord
extensive damage at the level of the cervical vertebrae produces
paraplegia is ...
damage at the lower level of the spinal cord
how can the peripheral nervous system be organized
by location of nerves, direction that info is carried, or by whether the nerves control voluntary or involuntary activities
how many pairs of cranial nerves
how many spinal nerve pairs
the first cervical spinal nerve is where
between the atlas and the occipital bone
other spinal nerves emerge through the _____
__ pairs of cervical spinal nerves
___ pairs of thoracic nerves
___ pairs of lumbar AND sacral nerves
____ pair of coccygeal nerves
Afferent neurons carry information to the
efferent neurons carry information
away form the CNS
Which nerves are only sensory
optic olfactory and auditory
Some nerves are mixed nerves give examples
vagus spinal nerves and their orgins
what is somatic division
controls the skeletal muscles registers conscious sensory info
What is autonomic division
controls involuntary activities,
what are the subdivided parts in the autonomic division ?
Parasympathetic (Feed and breed) , and sympathetic (Fight and flight)
facial expression saliva and tears
two names for hearing and balance nerves
auditory and vestibulocochlear
slows the heart rate and stimulates digestion
______ division motor neurons have a cell body in the CNS and an axon that extends tot he effector
motor pathways have ___ neurons in a series
First neuron in motor pathway extends ...
to the autonomic ganglion
second neuron in motor pathway describe
has a cell body in the ganglion and its unmyelinated axon extends to the effector
name some organs that have dual innervation
heart and pancreas