Anatomy ch. 20

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geoerguera
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247131
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Anatomy ch. 20
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2013-11-16 01:54:09
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Human anatomy circulatory system heart
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Chapter 20, The heart
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  1. What circuit of the heart carries carbon dioxide-rich blood from the heart to the gas exchanging surfaces of the lungs? what side of the heart powers this circuit?
    • Pulmonary circuit
    • Right
  2. What circuit of the heart carries oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the body's tissues? what side of the heart powers this circuit?
    Sytemic circuit

    Left
  3. The heart is located, in its own cavity, between the lungs. what is the space that contains the heart's cavity as well as large blood vessels, respiratory tubes, and the esophagus called?
    Mediastinum
  4. Describe the position of the heart in the chest (relative to the sternum and diaphragm).
    2/3 to the left of midline
  5. The heart is contained within its own container/wrapper formed by an inner serous layer (parietal pericardium) and an outer fibrous layer (fibrous pericardium). What is the term for this wrapper?
    Pericardial sac
  6. The outer tissue layer of the heart (visceral pericardium)
    Epicardium
  7. Middle tissue layer of the heart, muscular layer
    Myocardium
  8. inner tissue layer of the heart, continuous with lining of blood vessels
    endocardium
  9. cardiac muscle cells are connected by specialized junctions that both tie the cells together (for efficient contraction) and allow ions to pass through (electrical connection for unified contraction, where the heart's cells behave like a single cell). What do we call these specialized junctions?
    Intercalated discs
  10. What structure, consisting of bands of collagen and elastic fibers, stabilizes the muscle and valves of the heart and isolates the atrial and ventricular muscle to allow independent contraction (among other functions)?
    Fibrous skeleton
  11. Between atria and ventricles
    coronary sulcus
  12. anteriorly between ventricles
    anterior interventricular sulcus
  13. posteriorly between ventricles
    posterior interventricular sulcus
  14. Mammals and birds have a 4 chambered heart. what structures separate the left and right portions of each chamber type?
    ...
  15. Separates the ventricles
    interventricular septum
  16. seperates the atria
    interatrial septum
  17. what is the function of the heart valves?
    to prevent the backflow of blood
  18. what chambers of the heart receive blood from the body or the lungs?
    Atria
  19. List the 3 vessels that drain into the right atrium.
    • 1. superior vena cava 
    • 2. Inferior vena cava
    • 3. coronary sinus
  20. List the vessels that drain into the left atrium
    pulmonary veins
  21. What valves separte the atria from the ventricles?

    between the Left atrium and L ventricle
    Left atrioventricular valve , Bicuspid or mitral
  22. what valves separate the atria from the ventricles?

    Between the Right atrium and Right ventricle
    Right atrioventricular valve, tricuspid
  23. what structures attached to the atrioventricular valves and muscles in the ventricles look like white strings?
    Chordae tendineae
  24. what muscles, found in the ventricles, are attached to these strings and help ensure proper valve function?
    papillary muscles
  25. what chambers pump blood through the 2 circuits (to the body or to the lungs)?
    ventricles
  26. what vessel carries blood from the left ventricle and what valve is found between the chamber and this vessel?
    • Aorta 
    • Aortic semilunar valve
  27. what vessels carries blood from the right ventricle and what valve is found between the chamber and this vessel?
    Pulmonary trunk 

    Pulmonary semilunar valve
  28. Describe the status of the valves during ventricular systole (contraction).
    Atrioventricular - closed

    semilunar - open
  29. Describe the status of the valves during ventricular diastole (relaxation).
    Atrioventricular- open 

    semilunar- closed
  30. What 2 arteries originate at the base of the ascending aorta (just above the cusps of the aortic semilunar valve)?
    Right coronary artery 

    left coronary artery
  31. List the 2 main branches of the Left coronary artery. Match each to its description. 

    Travels left around the heart in the coronary sulcus
    Circumflex artery
  32. List the 2 main branches of the Left coronary artery. Match each to its description. 

    Travels inferiorly in anterior interventricular sulcus
    anterior interventricular artery
  33. List the 2 main branches of the right coronary artery. Match each to its description. 

    travels towards the apex along anterior right ventricle
    Right marginal artery
  34. List the 2 main branches of the Right coronary artery. Match each to its description. 

    Travels inferiorly in posterior interventricular sulcus
    Posterior interventricular artery
  35. What do we call an interconnection between arteries that allows collateral circulation (blood from one artery can flow into the area provided by the other)?
    Anastomosis
  36. In the anterior IV sulcus and Left coronary sulcus
    Great cardiac vein
  37. In the posterior IV sulcus
    middle cardiac vein
  38. along the right ventricle and Right coronary sulcus
    Small cardiac vein
  39. why does blood bypass the pulmonary circuit in the fetus and when does this end?
    Lungs collapsed causing pressure in vessels 

    First breath
  40. what do we call the hole in the fetal interatrial septum and what does it become (no longer a hole) after birth?
    Foramen ovale 

    Fossa ovalis
  41. what do we call the short vessel that connects the pulmonary trunk of the fetus to the aorta and what does it become after birth?
    Ductus arteriosus 

    ligamentum arteriosum

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