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is a quantity that represents magnitude and directions
The distance and direction of a body's movement
the speed and direction of a body's movement
- mass per unit of volume
the rate of a body's change of velocity
- a push or pull on a body
- mass X acceleration
what a force acts upon a body and moves it
the rate of doing work
- what is created when a force is applied at some distance from an axis or fulcrum, producing rotation about that point
- M=force X distance
Define potential energy
the ability of a body to do work because of tis position or state of being
Define kinetic energy
ability of a body to do work because or its motion
Newton's First Law of Motion
- Law of Equilibrium
- a body at rest tends to remain at res and a body in motion tends to remain in motion in a straight line at a constant velocity unless acted upon by some unbalanced force
- T6 in level unaccelerated flight
Newtons second Law
- Law of Acceleration
- An unbalanced force acting upon a body produces an acceleration in the direction of the force that is directly proportional to the force and inversely proportional to the mass of the body
- Thrust of a/c is greater than its drag, a/c will accelerate until drag=thrust
Newton's third law
- Law of Interaction
- for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction
- Rearward force of a a/c propeller's propwash causes an a/c to thrust forward at an equal amount of force
Define ambient static pressure
- A measurement of the weight of an air column over a specific area
- As altitude increases, there are less particles in a given column of air, thus ambient static pressure is less, because the column of air above you weighs less
The measure of the average kinetic energy of the air particles
What law is this formula for?
General gas law
If you _____ temperature but keep density constant, then it follows that pressure must rise.
If ______ is kept constant then there is an inverse relationship between density and temperature.
Define static pressure
the force that molecules of air exert on each other by their random movement
Define Dynamic pressure
a measure of impact pressure of a large group of air molecules moving together
Define total pressure
the sum of static and dynamic pressure
As the cross-sectional (diameter) are on one side of the tube gets smaller, velocity must _____ so that mass flow remains constant
Since total pressure is constant for all points in a streamtube, if dynamic pressure _______ at a point then static pressure must _____ at the same point.
dynamic pressure over an airfoil in a tube _____ because the fluid velocity _______. Static pressure must ____ at the airfoil surface.
- increase; increase; decrease
- dynamic pressure and fluid velocity are directly related; while static pressure is inversely related
Define true altitude
the actual height above mean seal level
Define pressure altitude
height measured above a standard datum plane
Define density altitude
pressure altitude corrected for temperature deviations form the standard atmosphere
At hotter temperatures, the air becomes less dense and _____ ____ _____.
density altitude increases
Define true airspeed
the actual speed at which an aircraft moves through an air mass
What pressure does the airspeed indicator show?
- dynamic pressure
- Takes total pressure through pitot tube, subtracts static pressure from static ports = dynamic pressure or IAS
TAS will _______ if IAS is held constant while climbing to a higher altitude.
Define calibrated arispeed
indicated airspeed corrected for either indicator error, or position errors
Define equivalent airspeed
calibrated airspeed corrected for compressibility effects
- IAS is ≤ CAS which is > EAS but < TAS
A _____ is a streamlined shape designed to produce lift as it moves through air
Define mean camber line (MCL)
- line drawn from the leading edge to the trailing edge, halfway between the upper and lower surface of the airfoil
- Straight line drawn through leading edge to trailing edge on an airfoil
- Chord is measured from leading edge to trailing edge
Where is the root chord and tip chord measured?
- Root chord - wing root
- Tip chord - wing tip
- Average chord is average of all chords from wing root to wing tip
- The curvature of the mean camber line of an airfoil
- Maximum distance between mean camber line and chord line
Airflow that travels along the span of the wing parallel to leading edge and does not create lift.
Air that flows at right angles to leading edge and produces lift.
angle between longitudinal axis and horizon
apparent movement through an air mass
motion of the air with respect to the motion of the aircraft
Angle of attack (AOA)
angle between chordline and relative wind
Angle of incidence
angle between aircrafts longitudinal axis and chordline of wing
upslope or downslope of wings when viewed from the front
- Distance wingtip to wingtip
- T6 - 33'5"
ratio of an aircrafts weight to the surface area of the wings
- reduction in the chord for a given airfoil from root to tip
- provides reduced weight, increased structural stiffness
- the ratio of wingspan to the average chord
- Glider- high aspect ration; fighter- low aspect ratio
- T6 - 35:1
The point where all aerodynamic forces are acting.
- aerodynamic center/ center of lift
- typically aft of aircrafts CG to provide longitudinal stability around the lateral (pitch) axis