Chem Test #1

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24716
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Chem Test #1
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2010-07-06 16:57:10
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basic chemistry
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chem
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  1. Law of Conservation of Mass
    • "In a chemical reaction, matter is neither created nor destroyed"
    • Antoina Lavoisier; observations on combustion.
  2. Homogenous vs. Heterogenous
    Homogenous: a mixture that has the same composition throughout; must be separated by distillation (boiling the mixture so that the more volatile liquid vaporizes and is then recondensed into a separate flask. (koolaid)

    Heterogeneous: composition varies from one region to another; separate by filtration. (wet sand)
  3. Extensive vs. Intensive
    Extensive: the value depends on the quantity of matter; extensive properties cannot be used to identify what type of matter something is

    Intensive: value independent of the quantity of matter (density)
  4. Volume equivalencies of a solid
    • 1 m3 = 106 cm3
    • 1 cm3 = 10-6 m3 = 0.000001 m3
  5. Commonly measured liquid or gas volume
    • 1 L is slightly larger than 1 quart
    • 1 L = 1 dm3 = 1000 mL = 103 mL
    • 1 mL = 0.001 L = 10-3 L
    • 1 mL = 1 cm3
  6. Common units and their equivalents: Length
    • 1 kilometer (km) = 0.6214 mile (mi)
    • 1 meter (m) = 39.37 inches (in.)
    • 1 meter (m) = 1.094 yards (yd)
    • 1 foot (ft) = 30.48 centimeters (cm)
    • 1 inch (in.) = 2.54 centimeters (cm) exactly
  7. Mass: common equivalents
    • 1 kilogram (km) = 2.205 pounds (lb)
    • 1 pound (lb) = 453.59 grams (g)
    • 1 ounce (oz) = 28.35 grams (g)
  8. Volume: Common Equivalents
    • 1 liter (L) = 1000 milliliters (mL)
    • 1 liter (L) = 1000 cubic centimeters (cm3)
    • 1 liter (L) = 1.057 quarts (qt)
    • 1 U.S. gallon (gal) = 3.785 liters (L)
  9. What did Leucippus and Democritus suggest?
    • -All matter was made up of small indestructible particles that they called atomos
    • -There were many different kinds of atoms with different shapes and sizes.
  10. What did Plato and Aristotle suggest?
    -All matter was infinitely divisible.
  11. Law of Definite Proportions
    Joseph Proust; All samples of a given compound, regardless of their source or how they were prepared, have the same proportions of their constituent elements.
  12. Law of Multiple Proportions
    • John Dalton
    • -When two elements, (call them A and B), form two different compounds, the masses of B that combine with 1 g of A can be expressed as a ratio of small, whole numbers
  13. Dalton's atomic theory
    • Dalton proposed a theory of matter based on it having indivisible particles (atoms) to explain these laws
    • 1.) Each element is composed of tiny, indestructible particles called atoms
    • 2.) All atoms of a given element has the same mass and other properties that distinguish them from atoms of other elements
    • 3.) Atoms combine in simple, whole-number ratios to form molecules of compounds
    • 4.) In a chemical reaction, atoms of one element cannot change into atoms of another element
    • -they simply rearrange the way they are attached
  14. Periodic Law
    • Mendeleev
    • -When the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic mass, certain sets of properties recur periodically
  15. Conversions between *F, *C, and K
    *C=(*F-32)/1.8

    K=*C + 273.15
  16. Density
    -water
    -mercury
    -ethanol
    -lead
    • Water = 1.00
    • Mercury = 13.55
    • Ethanol = 0.789
    • Lead = 11.4
  17. Ionic Bonds
    Occur between metals and non-metals; involve the transfer of one atom to another
  18. Rules for naming ionic compounds
    • If cation is:
    • -metal with invariant charge = metal name
    • -metal with variable charge = metal name(charge)
    • -polyatomic ion = name of polyatomic ion

    • If anion is:
    • -nonmetal = stem of nonmetal name + ide
    • -polyatomic ion = name of polyatomic ion
  19. Acetate
    C2H3O2-
  20. Carbonate
    CO32-
  21. Hydrogen carbonate (bicarbonate)
    HCO3-
  22. Hydroxide
    OH-
  23. Nitrite
    NO2-
  24. Nitrate
    NO3-
  25. Chromate
    CrO42-
  26. Dichromate
    Cr2O72-
  27. Phosphate
    PO43-
  28. Hydrogen Phosphate
    HPO42-
  29. Dihydrogen Phosphate
    H2PO4-
  30. Ammonium
    NH4+
  31. Hypochlorite
    ClO-
  32. Chlorite
    ClO2-
  33. Chlorate
    ClO3-

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