"In a chemical reaction, matter is neither created nor destroyed"
Antoina Lavoisier; observations on combustion.
Homogenous vs. Heterogenous
Homogenous: a mixture that has the same composition throughout; must be separated by distillation (boiling the mixture so that the more volatile liquid vaporizes and is then recondensed into a separate flask. (koolaid)
Heterogeneous: composition varies from one region to another; separate by filtration. (wet sand)
Extensive vs. Intensive
Extensive: the value depends on the quantity of matter; extensive properties cannot be used to identify what type of matter something is
Intensive: value independent of the quantity of matter (density)
Volume equivalencies of a solid
1 m3 = 106 cm3
1 cm3 = 10-6 m3 = 0.000001 m3
Commonly measured liquid or gas volume
1 L is slightly larger than 1 quart
1 L = 1 dm3 = 1000 mL = 103 mL
1 mL = 0.001 L = 10-3 L
1 mL = 1 cm3
Common units and their equivalents: Length
1 kilometer (km) = 0.6214 mile (mi)
1 meter (m) = 39.37 inches (in.)
1 meter (m) = 1.094 yards (yd)
1 foot (ft) = 30.48 centimeters (cm)
1 inch (in.) = 2.54 centimeters (cm) exactly
Mass: common equivalents
1 kilogram (km) = 2.205 pounds (lb)
1 pound (lb) = 453.59 grams (g)
1 ounce (oz) = 28.35 grams (g)
Volume: Common Equivalents
1 liter (L) = 1000 milliliters (mL)
1 liter (L) = 1000 cubic centimeters (cm3)
1 liter (L) = 1.057 quarts (qt)
1 U.S. gallon (gal) = 3.785 liters (L)
What did Leucippus and Democritus suggest?
-All matter was made up of small indestructible particles that they called atomos
-There were many different kinds of atoms with different shapes and sizes.
What did Plato and Aristotle suggest?
-All matter was infinitely divisible.
Law of Definite Proportions
Joseph Proust; All samples of a given compound, regardless of their source or how they were prepared, have the same proportions of their constituent elements.
Law of Multiple Proportions
-When two elements, (call them A and B), form two different compounds, the masses of B that combine with 1 g of A can be expressed as a ratio of small, whole numbers
Dalton's atomic theory
Dalton proposed a theory of matter based on it having indivisible particles (atoms) to explain these laws
1.) Each element is composed of tiny, indestructible particles called atoms
2.) All atoms of a given element has the same mass and other properties that distinguish them from atoms of other elements
3.) Atoms combine in simple, whole-number ratios to form molecules of compounds
4.) In a chemical reaction, atoms of one element cannot change into atoms of another element
-they simply rearrange the way they are attached
-When the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic mass, certain sets of properties recur periodically
Conversions between *F, *C, and K
K=*C + 273.15
Water = 1.00
Mercury = 13.55
Ethanol = 0.789
Lead = 11.4
Occur between metals and non-metals; involve the transfer of one atom to another