Lecture 20

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  1. What is convergent evolution?
    Development of similar features in unrelated species to similar selective features applied on the two species
  2. What are the four mating systems
    • Monogamy
    • Polygamy
    • Polyandry
    • Promiscuity
  3. Describe Monogamy and give examples
    • One male and female pair 
    • incubate and raise chicks together 
    • it is the demands faced by female on raising chick that determines monogamy
    • i,e monogamy is albatroses is due to the amount of days it takes to raise he chicks 
    • Monogamy is social but not always genetic
    • Examples of this include black swans who pair for life with them sharing roles on raising signet but 15% of all signets are illegitimate.
    • Fairy wrens : 75% of all offspring illegitimate , males have extra sperm for philandering
  4. Polygamy what is it and give examples
    • this is one male and several females 
    • i.e bower birds who build beautiful blue display the none with best nest is chosen  and he gets to mate with the most females
  5. Polyandry give examples
    • Polyandry is one female with many males
    • she lays separate clutches for each female
    • males raise the offspring 
    • Southern Cassowary females lays eggs for up to 3 males, males incubate eds for two month and look after the eggs for another 3 months
  6. Forms of parental care
    • Biparental
    • maternal/paternal
    • mound builders
    • cooperative breeding 
    • no care
  7. What is bi-parental care?
    • i.e little penguins , as they cannot raise the chick alone the two pair and raise it together until the chick is 3 years of age
    • they chat together and both biirds feed and defend babies
  8. Single parenting
    • Emus :Successive polyandry
    • male looks after the little chicks 
    • incubates them for 55 days
  9. Mound Builders
    • there are 3 species in oz : malee fowl ,orange legged south fowl , brush turkey
    • Malee fowl : put all their energy into building mound , eggs inside the mound are incubated due to the rotting process , chicks once hatched are independant , the mound is maintained at 33 degrees the birds can detect temp and moderate it
  10. What is cooperative breeding give me advantages and disadvantages
    • Breeding pair is assisted by helpers 
    • these helpers are generally siblings 
    • they help with incubation , territory defense and nesting 
    • i.e Fairy wrens
    • Advantages :  - shortage of breeding forces offspring to stay home 
    • gain breeding experience 
    • and if they can breed at least they can pass some genetic material along 
    • Disadvantages :  slow transition from young babies to independence
    • very dependent on helpers
    • trios always fail 
    • helpers are sometimes kidnapped
  11. No parental care how many forms
    • inter specific brooding : parasite brood lays eggs in birds nest of other species
    • intra specific brooding : female lays eggs in the same species
    • I.e Cuckoo adds an egg to the clutch of the host 
    • the cuckoo deveops quickly and kills all the other eggs
    • fairy wren can recognise the eggs
  12. Bird song what are its two main features
    • teritory defence 
    • mate atteaction
  13. What is duetting?
    the song is sung in an attempt to sobotage male song so females can get the male
  14. Fairy wren female songs
    - teritory defence
  15. Conservation what are processes that threaten birds
    • clearance of agriculture
    • grazing
    • fire
    • predation 
    • introduced species
    • orange bellied parrot seriously threatened
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Lecture 20
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