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  1. What is frequency?
    The pitch measured in 1 Hz
  2. What is amplitude?
    Loudness measured in decibels
  3. What is timbre?
    It is the complexity of the sound. It is different sounds mixed together
  4. What parts of the auditory system funnel in sound into the ear?
    Pinna and external auditory canal.
  5. What part of the ear first receives the sound waves?
    The tympanic membrane (eardrum). It vibrates to the waves
  6. What 3 bones are in the ossicles? What is their purpose?
    malleus, incus, stapes. They carry the sound wave vibrations to the cochlea.
  7. How does the sound effect the cochlea?
    The stapes pushes against oval window setting fluid into motion.
  8. What are hair cells in the ear for?
    They are sound receptor cells and are also used for balance.
  9. Where are the hair cells located in the ear?
    In the organ of corti and in the semicircular canals. They are embedded within the basilar membrane
  10. How do the hair cells receive the sound waves?
    Sound waves cause the movement of fluid in cochlea to move the basilar membrane. This causes the hair cell and it's cilia to move and create a graded potential until it hits a auditory nerve and fires an action potential.
  11. How many inner hair cells are there? And what do they do?
    There are 3500. They are required for hearing.
  12. How many outer hair cells are there? And what do they do?
    There are 12,000 hair cells and they are used to sharpen resloving pattern of cochlea.
  13. How are different sounds perceived?
    The location of the hair cell changes frequency. The bigger the buldge on the basilar membrane changes how loud the sound is.
  14. What is the path way from the ear to the brain?
    cochlear nuclei to superior olivary nuclei to inferior colliculi or medial geniculate nucleus (mgn) to primary auditory cortex.
  15. What is the left side of the brain for in terms of hearing?
    The left side of the brain is for language analyses.
  16. What is wernicke's area for?
    Process speech syllables and words.
  17. What is broca's area?
    matches speech sounds to motor outputs to articulate them.
  18. What is the right side of the brain in terms of hearing used for?
  19. Where is sweet receptors found in the tounge?
  20. Where are salty receptors found in the tongue?
  21. Where are sour receptors found in the tongue?
  22. Where are bitter receptors found in the tongue?
  23. What is the 5th chemoreceptor in the tongue? What does it do?
    It is umami. It is a receptor for L-gultamate. It is associated with the taste of MSG
  24. The smell and taste are unique with their receptors because?
    They are triggered by chemicals.
  25. What are the chemoreceptors for the tongue?
    Taste puds. They are embedded within the papillae and contain microvilli and taste cells. They are stimulated by chemical components of food and create action potentials.
  26. What is the chorda tympani nerve from taste do?
    Chorda tymapni nerve recieves action potentials from the front of the tongue.
  27. What does the glossopharyngeal nerve do in the tongue?
    It receives action potentials from the back of the tongue.
  28. What does the vagus nerve do?
    It receives action potentials from the throat and palate.
  29. What is the path of the taste to the brain?
    The taste nerves receive the taste and sent it to the nucleus of the solitary tract (in the medulla) to the arcuate nucelus (thalamus) to the somatosensory cortex (area 1), lateral hypothalmus and limbic system.  Crossover occurs at the medulla.
  30. How does smell receive input?
    Axons from the olfactory receptor neurons in the olfactory epithelium sent impulses to olfactory bulb.
  31. What are glomeruli and mitral cells?
    They are cells in teh olfactory bulbs used to receive smell.
  32. After the smell is received in the olfactory bulbs, where does it go?
    It goes to the piriform cortex on medial and ventral temporal lobes. Some go to the limbic system. This completely skips the thalamus.
  33. How many different genes code for olfactory receptors?
    1000. Which is a lot.
  34. How is the olfactory system different from the others?
    The olfactory has decreased in size due to evolution, it bypasses the thalamus, there is the rebirth of neurons in the olfactory bulb.
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