Bone Tissue Ch 7

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247179
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Bone Tissue Ch 7
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2013-11-16 13:47:06
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Bone Tissue
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  1. Functions of Skeleton
    Support, protection, movement, electrolyte balance, acid base balance, and blood formation
  2. Hardening process of bone
    Calcification
  3. Cranial bones, sternum, scapula, ribs, and hip bones are all:
    Flat Bones
  4. Humerus, radius, ulna, femur, fibula, tibia, metacarpals, metatarsals, and phalanges are:
    Long Bones
  5. Carpal, atrial, and patella are:
    Short Bones
  6. Vertebrae bones are called:
    Irregular Bones
  7. Contains bone marrow
    Marrow Cavity
  8. Shaft of long bone is called
    Diaphysis
  9. Heads of long bone are called:
    Epiphysis
  10. Joint surface where one bone meets another covered with a layer of Hyaline cartilage is called:
    Articular cartilage
  11. Bone is covered with a sheath called:
    Periosteum
  12. Growth plate is called
    Epiphyseal plate
  13. Two layers of compact bone with spongy middle layer is called
    Diploe
  14. Bone forming cells
    Osteoblasts
  15. Former osteoblasts
    Osteocytes
  16. Stimulates insulin secretion by pancreas, increases sensitivity in adipocytes, and limits growth of adipose tissue
    Osteocalcin
  17. Bone dissolving cells that develop from blood cells
    Osteoclasts
  18. Osteoblasts secrete
    Osteocalcin
  19. Inorganic calcium phosphate salt synthesized by osteoblasts
    Hydroxyapatite
  20. Childhood disease from lack of calcium
    Rickets
  21. Brittle bone disease "without collagen"
    Osteogenesis imperfecta
  22. Calcified hard bone, sponge-like appearance
    Spongy Bone
  23. Thin plates of spongy bone
    Trabeculae
  24. Soft tissue of marrow cavity
    Bone marrow
  25. Two types of bone marrow
    Yellow and Red
  26. Marrow found in axial skeleton
    Red Bone Marrow (myeloid tissue)
  27. Hemopoietic tissue (produces red blood cells)
    Red bone marrow
  28. Fatty Marrow
    Yellow Marrow
  29. Where is most red marrow found?
    In children
  30. Where is most yellow marrow found?
    In adults
  31. Formation of bone
    Osteogenesis (ossification)
  32. Bone develops by two methods:
    Intramembranous and endochondral ossification
  33. Produces flat bones of skull and most of clavicle
    intramembranous
  34. Process in which bone is preceded by hyaline cartilage "model" that becomes replaced by osseous tissue; begins in fetal development and continues into 20's (most bones of body)
    Endochondral ossification
  35. Two directions bones grow:
    Length and width
  36. Growth in length:
    Elongation
  37. Cartilage growth from within
    interstitial growth
  38. Bone growth in width
    Appositional growth
  39. Condition where long bones of limbs stop growing in childhood:
    Acondroplastic dwarfism
  40. Condition where a deficiency of growth hormone stunts growth in all of bone
    Pituitary dwarfism
  41. States that the architecture of a bone is determined by the mechanical stresses placed upon it, and the bone thereby adapts to withstand these stresses:
    Wolfe's Law of Bone
  42. Bones are continually:
    Remodeled
  43. Crystallization process in which calcium, phosphate, and other ions are taken from blood plasma and deposited in bone tissue
    Mineral deposition
  44. Abnormal calcification
    Ectopic ossification
  45. Adult body contains ____g of calcium, with ___% of it in the bones.
    1,100; 99
  46. Calcium deficiency
    Hypocalcemia
  47. Blood calcium in excess
    Hypercalcemia
  48. Depends on a balance between dietary intake, urinary and fecal losses, and exchanges with the osseous tissue
    Calcium Homeostasis
  49. Calcium Homeostasis is regulated by three hormones:
    Calcitriol, calcitonin, and parathyroid horomone
  50. Form of vitamin D produced by the sequential action of the skin, liver, and kidneys
    Calcitriol
  51. Softness of bone in children
    Rickets
  52. Softness of bone in adults
    Osteomalacia
  53. Most important factor in Blood Calcium Levels (bcl):
    Parathyroid hormones
  54. Causes premature closure and results in abnormally short adult stature
    Anabolic Steroids
  55. 4 stages of healing fractures:
    • 1. Hematoma
    • 2. Formation of soft callus
    • 3. Conversion to hard callus
    • 4. Remodeling
  56. Most common bone disease (mostly in women)
    Osteoporosis

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