microbio 6 ch 9 antimicrobial chemotherapy part 1 (penicillin, ampicillin, antibiotics, toxicity, an

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mikepl103
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247214
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microbio 6 ch 9 antimicrobial chemotherapy part 1 (penicillin, ampicillin, antibiotics, toxicity, an
Updated:
2013-11-16 21:05:25
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microbio antimicrobial chemotherapy part penicillin ampicillin antibiotics toxicity antibiotic resistance cephalosporin vancomycin
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microbio ch 9 antimicrobial chemotherapy part 1 (penicillin, ampicillin, antibiotics, toxicity, antibiotic resistance, cephalosporin, vancomycin)
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  1. what does the term selective toxicity mean>
    • When considering a drug or in some circumstances an
    • antibiotic, we want one that is effective at a low dose but not toxic until the
    • dose is high
  2. what is the therapeutic index?
    • The therapeutic index is the ratio of the toxic dose
    • to the therapeutic dose (toxic dose – how much of the chemical is required to
    • be toxic to the body; therapeutic dose – how much of the chemical is required
    • to be effective against the microbe). 
    • Toxic/Therapeutic = Therapeutic Index. 
    • The higher the ratio the better is the drug.
  3. what is better, a higher or lower therapeutic index?
    higher
  4. what are the three types of antibiotics in terms of how they are madE?
    naturally-produced, synthetic, semi-synthetic
  5. what does broad spectrum mean?
    it affects a wide variety of bacteria
  6. what does narrow spectrum mean?
    affects less bacteria than would broad spectrum antibiotics
  7. what is a static antibiotic?
    one that inhibits growth
  8. what does mic mean?
    minimum inhibitory concentration
  9. what does MLC mean?
    minimum lethal concentration
  10. one way to test the effectiveness of an antibiotic is the ____ ______ test, in which several tubes which contain the same amount of bacteria are treated with variable amounts of an antibiotic
    dilution susceptibility
  11. how do you tell if the bacteria within a test tube are growth-inhibited or killed?
    transfer the bacteria to a fresh agar medium and see if it grows. If it does, it was growth-inhibited.
  12. the fundamental structure of cillins is  _-_______ ____
    6-aminopenicillanic acid
  13. the ring structure that is common to cillin antibiotics is called what?
    beta lactam ring
  14. what are the disadvantages of penicillin G?
    it is very active against gram + bacteria, but not against gram negatives; it is acid labile; and it is susceptible to penicillinase
  15. what does penicillin G target in the bacterial cell?
    the cell wall
  16. what makes ampicillin different from penicillin G?
    it is broad spectrum and it is acid stable

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