Geography Test 4
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What's the climate like in the Taiga and Boreal Regions (mountains)?
These regions are transition zones which have characteristics of the regions around them.
What's the climate like in the Cordilleran Region (mountains)?
Aspect and elevation control temperatures and ppt. amounts in this region. Also, location with respect to the windward and leeward side of the mountain is important.
What's the climate control in Regina/Prairies?
- 1 and 2. Continental climate (not near the influence of water). Also, in winter, cold Arctic winds funnel down into the area.
- 3. Located on the leeward side of the mountains. They receive convectional ppt. in the summer.
What are the climate characteristics of Regina/Prairies?
- 1. Winters are cold and long (-13°C)
- 2. Summers are warm (not as warm as Windsor) and short (17°C).
- 3. Ppt. is light (300mm). This area is dry to semi-arid, and they get summer max ppt. distribution.
What's the climate control in Prince Rupert/Pacific Maritime/West Coast?
- 1. i) Warming effects of the Alaska Current
- ii) also, the Rockies are a barrier to the cold Arctic Winds
- 2. Cooling effects of the California Current.
- 3. Relief/Orography ppt.
What are the climate characteristics of Prince Rupert/Pacific Maritime/West Coast
- 1. Winters are cool (4°C), short, no average temperatures below 0°C
- 2. Summers are warm, but not as hot Windsor (16°C). They are moderate in length--sweater weather.
- 3. Ppt. is very heavy (1000 to 2000mm) and they get winter max ppt. distribution.
What's the climate control in Sydney/Atlantic Maritime/East Coast?
- 1 and 2. Moderating effects of the ocean currents (cold Labrador Current and the warm Gulf Stream)
- 3. Frontal ppt and they get the tail end of hurricanes.
What are the climate characteristics of Sydney/Atlantic Maritime/East Coast?
- 1. Winters are cold (0°C) and moderate in length. They get snow!
- 2. Summers are cooler than Windsor (warm, 14°C) and moderate in length.
- 3. Ppt. is heavy (over 1000mm) and a winter max ppt. distribution.
What's the climate control in Iqaluit/Arctic Region/North?
- 1. Northerly Latitude--they never get direct sunlight
- 2. Northerly Latitude
- 3. i) cool air cannot hold very much moisture
- ii) also, there is very little open water for evaporation to occur
- iii) there are mountain barriers (Alaska/Yukon area) causing a rain shadow effect.
What are the climate characteristics of Iqaluit/Arctic Region (North)?
- 1. Winters are very cold and long (25°C). There are 3 months of darkness.
- 2. Summers are warm and short (12°C)
- 3. Ppt. is sparse (less than 250mm per year--a cold desert), summer max ppt. distribution
What's the Climate Control in Windsor/Southeastern Region?
- 1. Southerly latitude, and the Great Lakes moderate temperatures somewhat.
- 2. Southerly latitude.
- 3. Frontal ppt, and in summer, convectional ppt.
What are the Climate Characteristics of Windsor/Southeastern Region?
- 1. Winters are relatively short and cold (-2°C)
- 2. Summers are hot, long and very humid. (21°C)
- 3. Ppt. is moderate (500-800mm) and even distribution.
Where do anvil clouds from?
In the troposphere?
What part of the atmosphere does weather occur?
Describe Conventional ppt.
- Occurs in Southern Ontario & Prairies in the hot summer.
- Sun forces warm, moist air to rise. This continues throughout the day w/ colder air replacing warm air. By late afternoon, a large cloud has formed and results in a 20min. violent thunderstorm.
- *Rises because of the sun*
Describe Frontal/Cyclonic ppt.
- A cold air front forces warm, moist air to rise, which cools, air condenses and then it rains/snows.
- Occurs in Southern Ontario and Southern Quebec.
- *Rises because of cold air.*
Describe Orography/Relief ppt.?
- The mountains force warm, moist air to rise. As it rises, the air can no longer hold the moisture, therefore is rains/snows depending on the temp.
- Then it descends back down the other side of the mountain and becomes warmer again. The other side of the mountain is dry. Called the "rain shadow effect".
- *Rises because of mountains*
What are the three types of precipitation?
What's an Air Mass?
A large body of air that takes on the temperature of the land it originates from.
How does the Aspect of the Land effect climate?
The incoming rays on the south slope of a mountain receives more direct sun rays than on the north slope, where the rays are more indirect. Therefore it's colder on the north slope.
How do Ocean Currents effect climate?
- They're rivers in the ocean that are different temperatures from the rest of the ocean.
- The land is warmed by ocean wind blowing over current.
- The Gulf Stream in the east coast is warm.
- The Labrador Current in the east is cold.
How do Elevation/Mountain Barriers effect climate?
- As you go up a mountain, it gets colder (2°C/300mm).
- This is because the air gets thinner (less gravity) and is therefore less able to hold heat (less oxygen causes mountain sickness)
- Mountains can be barriers to cold winds.
Why do Fruit Farmers plant their trees by the water?
Because in spring, the trees are kept cooler longer which delays blossoming time and hopefully gets them through the dangers of a late frost (in the fall, the warmer air allows fruit to ripen longer in the warmer weather).
Describe how Bodies of Water effect climate during the winter.
- The water is warm over warm water.
- Winds warm the land initially.
- Because the land cools quickly, the winds become cooler.
How do Prevailing Winds effect climate?
- Winds that blow in a certain direction most of the time. Winds are named according to the direction in which they originate.
- Westerlies are the prevailing winds in Canada.
- The wind from the Pacific Ocean going to Vancouver causes rain and warm temp.
- The same wind going into Calgary causes a little rain, dry, cold winters and hot summers
Describe how Bodies of Water effect climate during the summer.
- Wind becomes cooler over cool water.
- Winds cool the land initially.
- Because the land heats quickly, the winds become warmer.
How do Bodies of Water effect climate?
- Large bodies of water moderate temperatures because water takes longer to heat up in the summer and cool down in the winter.
- This is because water has a higher heat capacity.
- Bodies of water are large/deep/have a greater volume, therefore they take longer to heat or cool.
- Water is in constant motion, warm water loses its heat.
How does Latitude effect climate?
- The greater distance from the equator, the colder it gets.
- This is because the sun's rays are more concentrated (smaller surface area to heat) at the equator. As you move north or south of the equator, the rays heat up a large surface area (therefore colder).
- ALSO, there is more atmosphere to go through as you move away from the equator, therefore more atmosphere particles exist that can reflect (back to space) or absorb energy, which means less energy gets through to the earth (therefore colder).
What are the 6 factors that control climate?
- Bodies of Water
- Prevailing Winds
- Elevation/Mountain Barriers
- Ocean Currents
- Aspect of the Land
Annual Precipitation is very heavy if it's...
2000mm and over.
Annual Precipitation is heavy if it's...
1000mm to 1999mm
Annual Precipitation is moderate if it's...
500mm to 999mm
Annual Precipitation is light if it's...
250mm to 499mm
Annual Precipitation is sparse if it's...
The range of temperature is very large if it's...
30°C or over.
The range of temperature is large if it's...
20°C to 29.9°C
The range of temperature is moderate if it's...
10°C to 19.9°C
The range of temperature is small if...
It's under 10°C
Very Hot is...
30°C and over.
10°C to 19.9°C
-19.9°C to 0°C
Very Cold is...
How do you find the annual precipitation?
Add them all.
How do you find out the average temperature?
Add all the temperatures and divide but the quantity.
How do you make a climagraph?
- The precipitation is marked in blue bars by month on the bottom of the graph.
- A red line indicates the temperature throughout the months.
Definition of Distribution of Precipitation.
- Precipitation can be found in 3 general patterns.
- 1. most of the ppt. falls in the winter ~ Winter Max. In the east and west coast of Canada.
- 2. most of the ppt. falls in the summer months ~ Summer Max. Prairies.
- 3.the ppt. is fairly even through the year ~ Even. Windsor.
Definition of Precipitation.
- Water in different forms that falls to the ground.
- e.g. rain, snow, hail, etc.
- It's measured in mm.
- 10mm=1mm of rain (average)
Definition of Growing Season.
- Period during which crops can grow, which is the number of days between spring and autumn when the average daily temperature is above 5.6°C, temperature at which most crops grow. The value is given in days.
- e.g. 6 months x 30 days=180 days.
Definition of Temperature Range.
- Subtraction of coldest average monthly temperature.
- ex. 20°C-(-10°C)=30°C ~ The temperature range is 30 degrees.
Definition of Continental Climate.
- Climate type that develops away from the influence of an ocean or other large body of water. The annual temperature range tends to be large and precipitation is low (<350mm).
- i.e. the Prairies
Definition of Maritime Climate.
- Climate type that is strongly influenced by the closeness of an ocean or other large body of water. The annual temperature range tends to be small and precipitation tends to be high (>1000mm)
- The East and West coasts of Canada
Definition of climate.
- Weather conditions of a place averaged over a long period of time (50-100 yrs).
- i.e. "tropical climate" or "Mediterranean climate"
Definition of weather.
- Combination of temperature, precipitation, cloud cover and winds experienced daily.
- e.g. daily weather report--rain in the morning, partly cloudy in the afternoon, high 8°C and low 2°C
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