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What axis is borderline intellectual functioning coded on?
IQs for Mental Retardation
- Mild: 55-70 (85%), 6th grade
- Moderate: 40-55, 2nd grade
- Severe: 25-40
- Profound: <25
Criteria for Mental Retardation
- 1. Subaverage intellectual functioning
- 2. Deficits in adaptive functioning in at least TWO areas
- 3. Onset before age 18
Areas of adaptive functioning (mental retardation)
- Home living
- Social/interpersonal skills
- Use of community resources
- Academic skills
- Health and safety
Types of Learning Disorders
- Reading disorder
- Mathematics disorder
- Disorder of written expression
- Learning disorder NOS
Criteria for Learning Disorder
- Performance on achievement test is substantially below what would be expected for the person's age, schooling, and intelligence
- Learning problem interferes with academic achievement or ADLs
How is "substantially below" defined for learning disorders?
Discrepancy of two or more SD between achievement and IQ (occasionally between 1-2 SD)
Mental retardation and comorbid disorders?
- 3-4 times more comorbid disorders
- Mood disorders
- Stereotypic movement do
Learning disorder and comorbidity?
- Conduct disorder
- Oppositional defiant disorder
- Depressive disorders
Developmental Coordination Disorder
- Characterized by deficits in daily activities that require motor coordination
- May be manifested by:
- 1) Marked delays in achieving motor milestones
- 2) Clumsiness
- 3) Poor performance in sports
- 4) Poor handwriting
According to Kelley, when people make attributions they consider:
- 1. Consistency (behave same way over time?)
- 2. Distinctiveness (behavior unique to situation?)
- 3. Consensus (do people in same situation respond similarly?)
According to Kelley, people tend to make internal attributions for behaviors that are:
- High in consistency
- Low in distinctiveness
- Low in consensus
(the person engages in behavior consistently over time in many different situations, and other people do not engage in that behavior in the same situation)
According to Kelley, people tend to make external attributions for behaviors that are:
- High in consistency
- High in distinctiveness
- High in consensus
(the person engages in the behavior consistently over time but only in this specific situation, and other people engage in that behavior in the same situation)
Attribution theory and learned helplessness
When a person attributes negative events to internal, stable, and global causes, person more likely to experience depression, helplessness, and hopelessness.
Illusion of Control
Non-depressed persons have unrealistically positive assessments of their ability to control outcomes
People estimate the likelihood of a situation by how easily they can recall it. (e.g., death by firearms rated more common since receive publicity)
People make judgments about other people or events based on what they believe is a typical example of a particular category.
People develop mental images of situations and then use mental images to make judgments about facts in their lives.
Kelly's Personal Construct Theory
- People are scientists: constantly forming, testing, and revising hypotheses about the world
- We perceive the world according to what we expect to see based on past experiences
- Theory is active and future-oriented
- Repertory Grid Technique
Idea proposed to explain discrepancy between thoughts or feelings and behavior
- Explains attitude change when two people have attitudes toward the same object/activity
- 1) Joe and Beth like each other and like Obama.
- 2) Joe and Beth like each and hate Obama.
- Unbalanced:1) Joe and Beth like each other and have different feelings about Obama.
- 2) Joe and Beth DO NOT like each other and have same feelings about Obama.
- Extends Balance Theory by considering intensity of relationship
- Stronger the bond, more intense any imbalance (lack of symmetry)
- Extends Balance Theory by predicting which attitudes will change
- A person will favor the object toward which he/she feels most affinity.
- People change their attitudes to reduce the aversive arousal they experience when they become aware of inconsistency in cognitions
- Results in changing attitudes to make actions
4 circumstances in which attitude change results from cognitive dissonance
- 1) Postdecisional dissonance
- 2) Effort justification
- 3) Insufficient justification
- 4) Insufficient deterrence
Occurs when a person is faced with two good choices, and he or she becomes upset at not choosing one of the alternatives. Person then emphasizes the positive features of the alternative he/she chose.
Person is upset at having spent significant effort on a goal that turns out not to be very worthwhile. Person then emphasizes the positive qualities of the goal.
Occurs when a person performs an undesirable behavior for a small inducement. The person then emphasizes the positive qualities of the behavior.
Occurs when a person does NOT perform a desirable action because of a small deterrent. He/she then emphasizes the negative aspects of the action.
People are motivated to confirm the expectations that others have of them.
Most research fails to support this theory! Shows that people actively resist when others have negative expectations of them.
People are motivated to think favorably of themselves and behave in ways that cause others to see them favorably as well.
Sleeper Effect in Persuasion
People forget the source of the communication over time, but remember the message.
Which type of source would be most persuasive for unimportant matters?
Likable, similar, or physically attractive
Which type of source would be most persuasive for important matters?
In order for fear to be persuasive...
- Must engender a lot of fear
- Message must be believable
- Must offer specific instructions for avoiding danger
Primacy effect in persuasion
When there is a long gap between a speech an the desired action, the speaker who speaks first will be remembered best.
Recency effect in persuasion
When the gap in between speech and desired action is small (i.e., a few days) the speaker who speaks last is best remembered.
Type of audience that is easiest to influence
- Moderate discrepancy in attitude
- Higher vulnerability (e.g., young kids, teens, depressed adults)
- Higher level of involvement with the idea or product
People will not comply with requests or attempts to be persuaded if the feel their freedom is threatened. (regain control by refusing to comply)
Thus, coercion (or hard sell) typically triggers a reactance motivational state.
Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion
- Peripheral Route
- Central Route
A person is given a mild argument against a belief, and then practices refuting this mild argument. Improves person's ability to refute stronger arguments against the belief.
3 types of conflict
- Approach-approach conflict
- Approach-avoidance conflict
- Avoidance-avoidance conflict
- Must choose between 2 or more favorable alternatives
- Want it all, but can't have it!
- When person moves toward one option, the other decreases in appeal
- Must choose whether to do one thing that will have both desirable and undesirable results (e.g., having a child)
- Approach tendency is greatest initially and then, as one approaches the goal, avoidance becomes stronger
- Person has to choose between two unpleasant alternatives that will lead to negative results no matter what
- Give up son or daughter?
- Most difficult to resolve and generates most stress.
- Usually a lot of back and forth and may end up choosing lesser of two evils
- May also choose to not choose and escape the field
Sources of Prejudice
- 1. Learned Prejudice (social lrng, oper cond)
- 2. Cognitive Process (ingroup/outgroup, homogeneity effect)
- 3. Personality Traits (authoritarianism)
- 4. Competition for Limited Resources
- 5. Displaced Aggression (scapegoat)
Best outcome measure of successful intergroup relations in school integration
Behavioral measures of interaction (e.g., kids playing on playground)
- Emotions result from perceiving bodily reactions or responses
- I'm running and my heart is pounding so I must be afraid.
- Overall, not supported
- Emotions and bodily reactions occur at the same time.
- Messages sent simultaneously to the hypothalamus and to the limbic system.
- Some support from research showing that animals prevented from experiencing physiological arousal still display emotions
Schacter's Two-Factor Theory
- Emotion results from information from two systems:
- 1. Internal (physiological arousal)
- 2. External (i.e., cognitive labeling
People of approximately equal physical attractiveness are likely to select each other.
Social Exchange Theory
People are concerned with the benefits and liabilities of a relationship. Each person considers the rewards from the interaction, as well as the costs incurred in the interaction.
Cross-cultural research on TV and violence found...
Among children in five countries, TV violence did increase aggressiveness and aggressive children do tend to seek out violent programs.
When TV is introduced in new areas of the world, there is an abrupt increase in homicide rates.
Crowding and aggression?
- Crowding tends to affect men more than women
- Leads to heightened arousal for both positive and negative emotions
Reference Groups and Conformity
- We may conform to be like people we admire, like, and want to resemble.
- (athletes, movie stars, parents, etc.)
- Can be earned by initially conforming to group's norms.
- If person earns idiosyncrasy credits, group is more tolerant when they deviate from group norms
In Milgram's studies, what percentage of subjects obeyed the commands and administered the most severe levels of shock?
- Group members' separate performance are added to produce a combined effect.
- Outcome is affected by the performance of the MOST effective group member.
Group's accomplishment limited by the performance of the LEAST effective member. (quality control)
- Tendency for people in groups to make riskier decisions that they would if they were deciding as individuals.
- Groups can be more creative and innovative than individuals.
Tendency for people in groups to become more extreme in their views.
- Occurs in highly cohesive groups when group members seek concurrence, consensus, and unanimity more than they seek the best possible alternative.
- Tendency for group members to think alike and lose critical evaluative capacities
- Occurs when individual task performance is enhanced by the mere presence of others.
- Occurs most when task is simple and familiar.
- Performance is compromised by the presence of others.
- Occurs when the task is novel and complex.
People don't work as hard on a task when they are part of a group as compared to when they are working alone.
ETIC view of people
Assumes there are universal principles underlying psychology
EMIC view of people
- Culture-specific view or multicultural perspective.
- Every culture has its own norms and values and no one model of mental health can be applied to all.
The process of learning one's own culture, influenced primarily by home and family.
- Generally refers to people who have successfully integrated two or more separate aspects of their cultural identity.
- Often the final stage of models of racial/cultural identity development.
Berry's Theory of Acculturation
- Two factors in acculturation:
- 1) Cultural maintenance: refers to valuing and preserving cultural identity.
- 2) Contact and participation: refers to involvement with the dominant culture and other cultural groups
- 4 Acculturation Strategies:
- 1) Assimilation: do not maintain cultural identity, but seek interaction with other cultures
- 2) Separation: individuals value original culture and wish to avoid interaction with people from other cultures
- 3) Integration: maintain original cultural id while interacting with other cultures
- 4) Marginalization: do NOT maintain original cultural id and do NOT seek interaction with other cultures
Idioms of Distress
- "Illness language" of a particular cultural group (i.e., culturally preferred ways of expressing distress).
- Some groups may express distress in terms of somatic complaints, witchcraft, possession, even violent behavior
Psychiatric disorders that are found only in a particular cultural group (e.g., anorexia)
- Occurs when the therapist:
- makes narrow assumptions about reality,
- minimizes cultural variation among individuals,
- disregards evidence disconfirming superiority of dominant culture,
- resorts to technique-oriented strategies and short-term solutions
- judges others according to therapists' self-reference criteria
Treatment and SES
- Higher dropout rate
- Tend to be assigned least experienced clinicians
- BUT when remain in therapy, get as much benefit from it as high SES
- SES may acct for differences in tx usually attributed to ethnicity
- Refers to ideas and actions that denigrate non-heterosexual behavior.
- Preferred term (rather than homophobia)
Gay and Lesbian Identity Development
- Stage 1: Sensitization
- Before puberty
- Child feels different from peers (gender, not sexuality)
- Internalizes negative self-concept
- Stage 2: Identity Confusion
- Age 17 or 18
- Growing recognition of homosexual feelings
- Feelings of being excluded from world
- Thus, conflict! May cope with denial, avoidance, or repair (attempt to become heterosexual)
- Stage 3: Identity Assumption
- Ages 19-22
- Managing social stigma
- Increased contact with other gays and lesbians
- Strategies include capitulation, minstralization, passing, and group alignment
- Stage 4: Commitment
- Ages 22-23
- Integration of homosexual identity
- Open about sexual orientation, same-sex commitments, generally happier.
Agreeing with society's negative view of homosexuality though still identifying as homosexual.
Acting out stereotypically homosexual behavior
Hiding being homosexual most of the time, while identifying as a homosexual to oneself and/or a select group of people.
Immersing oneself in the gay and lesbian communities while still harboring negative attitudes about being homosexual.
- Meaning of the communication based on what is explicitly verbalized
- Middle-class white american culture (say what you mean!)
5 stages of Minority Identity Development Model (brief)
- 1. Conformity
- 2. Dissonance
- 3. Resistance
- 4. Introspection
- 5. Synergetic Articulation and Awareness
Minority Identity Development Model
Stage 1: CONFORMITY
- Minority person prefers dominant culture
- Negative views about oneself, minority group, and other minority groups.
Minority Identity Development Model
Stage 2: DISSONANCE
Person appreciates aspects of minority culture and questions values/customs of dominant culture
Minority Identity Development Model
Stage 3: RESISTANCE (Immersion)
- Person completely endorses minority-held views
- Identifies with minority group
- Rejects dominant values of society and culture
- Conflict between ethnocentrism and empathy for other minority groups
- Racial pride
Minority Identity Development Model
Stage 4: INTROSPECTION
- Deeper analysis of attitudes and feelings
- Level of intensity of feelings directed toward whites is draining
- Many elements of white culture functional and desirable
- Ethnocentrism diminishes, replaced by interest in oppression experienced b other groups
Minority Identity Development Model
Stage 5: SYNERGETIC ARTICULATION AND AWARENESS
Involves the ability to be both appreciative and appropriately critical of aspects of one's own culture, dominant culture, and minority cultures.
Jackson's Model of Black Identity Development
- Four Stages:
- 1. Passive-acceptance
- 2. Active-resistance
- 3. Redirection
- 4. Internalization
Cross's Model of Black Identity Development
- Similar to Minority Identity Development
- 1. Preencounter (like conformity)
- 2. Encounter (like dissonance)
- 3. Immersion-emersion (like resistance)
- 4. Internalization (like introspection)
- 5. Internalization-Commitment (like synergetic articulation and awareness)
Helm's White Racial Identity Development Model
- 1. CONTACT: ignorant, don't recognize racism, may be curiosity or trepidation
- 2. DISINTEGRATION: uncomfortable with advantages of being white, and role of whites in racism; may deny existence of racisms or avoid people of color
- 3. REINTEGRATION: acknowledges white identity; accepts belief in white racial superiority
- 4. PSEUDO-INDEPENDENCE: question that blacks are inferior; associate with people of color; alienation from whites
- 5. IMMERSION/ EMERSION: examines racial identity, replacing myths about race with accurate info; may change attitudes towards blacks
- 6. AUTONOMY: positive redefinition of being white; open to new info and new ways of thinking about race
Culture-bound syndromes among Hispanics
- Susto (fright)
- Nervios (nerves)
- Mal de Ojo (evil eye)
- Attaque de Nervios (screaming, crying, aggression, dissociation, fainting)
Recommendations for interventions with Hispanics
- Oriented toward problem-solving
- Family therapy often useful
- Informality, chit-chat, individual attention
Culture-bound syndromes in African-American community
- Isolated sleep paralysis (inability to move while falling asleep or waking up)
- Falling out (sudden collapse preceded by dizziness)
- Suicide rates on rise in young black men
- Tend to be overdiagnosed with schizophrenia and underdiagnosed with bipolar disorder
Healthy suspiciousness that is based on real experiences of racism
- Special attention during first session to establishing positive alliance
- Egalitarian therapy
Multisystems approach (Boyd-Franklin)
- Family's struggle must be understand within environmental and cultural context
- Encourages meeting outside of consultation room and active involvement with different systems that influence clients (church, social services et)
Culture-Bound Syndromes Among Asian Americans
- Hwa-byung ("suppressed anger syndrome")
- PTSD at high rate
A psychological disorder marked especially by easy fatigability and often by lack of motivation, feelings of inadequacy, and psychosomatic symptoms
Treatment Recommendations for Asian Americans
- Active and directive approach
- Less likely to drop out of treatment if matched with therapist of same identity
Treatment Recommendations for Native Americans
- Some recommend non-directive approach, others not
- Family therapy should be used when possible
- Incorporating traditional healing practices