LINUX Kernel - Base
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Explain monolithic kernel
an operation system architecture where the entire operating system is working in kernel space and is alone in supervisor mode.
minimum amount of software which provides only basic IPC, virtual memory and scheduling. Protocol stacks, device driver and file systems are run in user mode
Is Linux Monolithic kernel?
temporarily interrupting a task without requiring its cooperation and with the intention of resuming the task at a later time
Is Linux preemptive kernel?
Yes as of Linux kernel 2.6 and 3.x
Explain time slice or quantum
The period of time for which a process is allowed to run in a preemptive multitasking system
Explain preemptive multitask
Using interruption to make running process interrupted and ask scheduler to decide which process is to run next
Explain soft link
a special type of file that contains a reference to another file or directory. Also called as sympolic link or symlink
Explain hard link
A directory entry that associates a name with a file on a file system. It's like an alias
List up 5 main components of Linux Kernel
- 1. Interrupt handler
- 2. Scheduler
- 3. Memory Manager
- 4. Networking
- 5. Inter-Process Communication (IPC)
Explain difference between soft link and hard link
Hard link is a link to another file or directory while softlink is a link to a file name. If a file is removed, hardlink will be automatically updated but softlink not
To ensure that a file is not destroyed until all links to it are remove, what does linux do?
each inode contains a link count that keeps track of the number of links within the file system that point to it. When a pathname is unlinked, the link count is decremented by one. Only when it reaches zero are the inode and its associated data actually removed from the file system
Hard links can not span file systems. Why?
Because an inode number is meaningless outside of the inode's own file system
Symlink looks like regular files. Why?
Because symlink has its own inode and data chunk which contains the complete pathname of the linked-to file.
Symlink can point a file that resides on different file system. Why?
Because the symlink has its own data chunk containing complete path name of the linked-to file
Explain character device
- devices through which the system transmits data one character at a time by.
- For example keyboard, mouse, serial modem etc
Explain block device
- device that moves data in the form of blocks by.
- e.g. hard disks, CD-ROMs, memory etc
In Character devices, when there are no more chars left to read, what does the devices return?
Explain named pipe
An IPC mechanism that provides a communication channel over a file descriptor, accessed via a special file. Also called as a FIFO special file
Explain regular pipe
the output of one program into the input of another. Pipe is created in memory via a system call and does not exist on any filesystem
One of a special file which is one of IPC mechanisms.
What is the smallest addressable unit on a block device?
What size is common for sectors?
Can block device transfer or access a unit of data smaller than a sector?
What is the smallest logically addressable unit on a file system?
What size is usually set for a block?
size of sector ^ 2
Explain page size
the smallest unit addressable by the memory management unit, a hardware component
Blocks must be smaller than the page size. Yes or no?
What are common block sizes?
512 bytes, 1KB and 4KB
Explain per-process namespaces
Per-process namespaces allow each process to have a different mount point sets. By default each process inherits the namespace of its parent, but a process may elect to create its own namespace with its own set of mount points and a unique root directory
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