Vertebral column, Spinal Cord, intrinsic back

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Imanalo
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Vertebral column, Spinal Cord, intrinsic back
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2013-11-17 10:53:50
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Vertebral column spinal cord intrinsic back
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Lecture 17 - Vertebral Column - 11/5/13
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  1. What are the 4 regions of the spinal column?
    • cervical (7)
    • thoracic (12)
    • lumbar (5)
    • sacral (5) - fused
    • coccyx (3-4) - fused
  2. What are the transverse foramina? What are they for?
    The transverse foramina are the distinguishing features of the cervical vertebrae. They allow the passage of the vertebral arteries, vertebral veins, and the cardiac plexus
  3. What are the components that make up the intervertebral discs?
    • Annulus fibrosis (outer ring) - the annulus fibrosis is composed of an inner ring and an outermost ring. The inner ring is made of fibrocartilage and the outermost ring is made up of more rigid collagen
    • Nucleus pulposus (innermost portion) - gelatinous center that helps absorb compressive forces that act on the spine
  4. What are the features of a typical vertebra?
    • Body
    • vertebral arch - 2 Pedicle, 2 lamina
    • Transverse process
    • Spinous process - projections of the union of the laminae
    • Articular processes - superior and inferior - sites of articulation of vertebrae above and below
  5. What articulates with the skull? What structure does the head rotate on?
    • The atlas (C1) articulates with the head via the atlanto-occipital joint
    • The skull rotates around the dens of the axis (C2)
  6. Describe the atlanto-occipital joint
    • The atlas has superior and inferior lateral masses. The superior lateral masses articulate with the occipital condyles of the skull.
    • The atlanto-occipital joint is a synovial joint
    • The fibrous joint capsule of the atlanto-occipital joint surrounds the occipital condyles and the superior articular facet of the atlas
  7. What structures support the atlanto-occipital joint?
    • Fibrous joint capsule
    • Posterior and anterior atlanto-occipital membrane
    • Ligamentum Nuchae
    • Apical ligament
    • Alar ligament
  8. Describe the atlas-axis joints
    • The inferior lateral masses of the atlas articulate with the superior articular process of the axis
    • The articular facet for dens of the atlas articulates with the dens 
    • The fibrous capsule for these joints are loose and thin
    • These are synovial joints
  9. What structures support the atlas-axis joints?
    • Anterior longitudinal ligament
    • Ligamentum flavum
    • Transverse ligament of the atlas - holds the dens in place
    • Cruciform ligaments - superior (base of occi[ital bone), transverse (intermesh with transverse ligament of atlas), inferior (posterior surface of axis)
    • Apical ligament
    • Alar ligament - checks rotation
  10. How many joints are included in a typical intervertebral joint? Be specific.
    • 2 symphyses between each vertebra
    • 4 zygopophisial joints - the articulation between the superior articular facet of a vertebra and the inferior articular facet of the vertebra above it
  11. What are the support structures of the intervertebral joints?
    • Anterior longitudinal ligament
    • Posterior Longitudinal Ligament
    • Ligamentum flava - paired ligaments
    • Supraspinous ligament
    • Ligamentum nuchae
    • Interspinous ligaments
  12. What are the motions that are possible in the vertebral column?
    • Movement at the individual intervertebral joints are minimal, but together they have great ROM
    • Flexion, extension, lateral flexion, rotation, circumduction
  13. What are the borders of the vertebral canal?
    • Anterior wall - formed by the posterior surfaces of the vertebral bodies, intervertebral discs and the posterior longitudinal ligament
    • Posterior wall - formed by the ligamentum flava and the spinous processes
    • Lateral walls - formed by the vertebral arches
  14. What are the meninges? What are its layers?
    • The meninges are the protective membranes that surround the spinal cord and brain
    • Pia mater - deepest layer 
    • Arachnoid mater - intermediate layer
    • Dura mater - tough outer layer
    • CSF run between the pia and arachnoid mater
  15. What form the intervertebral foramina? What are they for?
    • Intervertebral foramina are formed by the superior and inferior vertebral notches
    • They allow passage of spinal nerves, arteries and veins
  16. Trace the path of the blood supply of the posterior spinal root in the neck
    left or right subclavian artery / left of right vertebral or deep cervical artery / segmental spinal artery / posterior radicular artery / posterior spinal root.
  17. Trace the path of the blood supply of the anterior spinal root in the thorax
    Thoracic aorta or supreme intercostal artery / posterior intercostal artery / segmental spinal artery / anterior radicular artery / anterior spinal root
  18. Trace the path of the blood supply of the posterior spinal root in the abdomen
    Abdominal aorta / left or right lumbar artery / segmental spinal artery / posterior radicular artery / posterior spinal root
  19. Trace the paths of the segmental medullary arteries
    • Abdominal aorta / left or right lumbar artery / segmental spinal artery / segmental medullary artery
    • thoracic aorta or supreme intercostal artery / posterior intercostal artery / segemental spinal artery / segmental medullary artery
    • Segmental medullary arteries only present at some levels
  20. Trace the path of the anterior spinal artery
    • Left and right subclavian / left and right vertebral artery / anterior spinal artery 
    • At some levels segmental medullary arteries feed into the anterior spinal arteries
  21. Trace the path of one posterior spinal artery
    Left subclavian artery / left vertebral artery / left posterior inferior cerebellar artery / left posterior spinal artery
  22. Trace the blood supply of the serratus posterior superior muscle
    Serratus posterior superior: posterior intercostal arteries 2-5 / thoracic aorta and the supreme intercostal artery
  23. What are the functions of serratus posterior inferior?
    • depress ribs 9-12
    • may prevent elevation of lower ribs during diaphragm contraction
  24. What arteries supply the erector spinae, splenius capitis and the splenius cervicis?
    • vertebral artery
    • deep cervical artey
    • occipital artey
    • transverse cervical artery
    • posterior intercostal arteries
    • subcostal artery
    • lumbar arteries
    • lateral sacral arteries
  25. What are the functions of the splenius capitis?
    • Together: draw head backward, extending neck
    • Individually: rotate head to ipsilateral side
  26. What are the functions of the splenius cervicis?
    • Together: extend neck
    • Individually: rotate head to ipsilateral side
  27. Where does the common tendon of erector spinae originate?
    • Sacrum
    • lumbar spinous processes
    • lower thoracic spinous processes
    • iliac crest
  28. What are the functions of the erector spinae?
    • Bilaterally: control trunk flexion from an erect posture, extend vertebral column and head
    • Unilaterally: rotate head, laterally flex trunk

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